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Die Casting News

Applying and Handling Die Lubricants

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 9, 2020 9:11:53 AM

How to control lubricants for better housekeeping

Excerpt from the April 2003 issue of Stamping Journal by Stan Reinke

Effective application of die lubricants typically is overlooked in many stamping facilities. Many companies try to get by with applying as little lubricant as possible, just so they don't have to deal with the mess.

However, metal stampers need to move away from thinking of in-die lubrication as a necessary evil and instead view it as a powerful tool that, when applied effectively, can improve die life, press speed, and part quality.

In many applications, the lubricant first is applied to the stock. Some companies use roller coaters for this job. However, for operations in which the lubricant must be reapplied in the die, spray lubrication often is required.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, die casting lubricant management, Stamping Journal

AFS Casting Awards 2020 - Die Casting Outstanding Achievement

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 1, 2020 9:12:04 PM

Outstanding Achievement: Magnesium Strut Tower Brace

Excerpt from the Modern Casting May 2020 article.

This year's American Foundry Society named 2 foundry castings with their top honors as well as 8 others for outstanding achievement. One of those companies achieved outstanding achievement for their unique cold chamber high-pressure die-cast magnesium strut tower brace. 

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Mold Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, Die Casting Lubrication and Application, die casting lubricant management, Modern Casting Magazine

Die-Release and Die-Spray Technologies Improve Productivity

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 24, 2020 1:34:31 PM

As lightweight automotive design fuels more diecasting applications, faster die-spraying is cutting cycle times, and more uniform adhesion is improving process reliability.

Excerpt from the June 2020 article from Foundry Management & Technology

Cost optimization and improved productivity and product quality are driving die casting strategies, particularly in the face of global competition and the need to produce more complex components. Automotive design and manufacturing are prompting to die casters to take on more complex, lightweight, components for powertrain, chassis, and structural parts. In turn, this has guided investments in larger high-pressure die casting machines and more expensive tooling, which has manufacturers seeking to improve productivity, process reliability, and product quality, and to extend die service.

The main purpose of a die-release agent is to allow clean part release and provide a release film that minimizes die soldering, and uniform coverage is critical to both process reliability and the finished product quality.  Standard water-based lubricants evaporate in contact with a hot steel die, leaving a lubricant coating. This is a critical stage, because too much lubricant means liquid cannot evaporate quickly enough when molten metal is injected; and too little lubricant may result in poor material flow (i.e., "die soldering"), and then causing surface defects and porosity that reduce finished product quality.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Mold Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, Die Casting Lubrication and Application, die casting lubricant management, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Predicting Castability for Thin-Walled HPDC Parts

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 17, 2020 2:43:30 PM

Current simulation tools account for the physics of fluidity, and should be capable of predicting castability too. Investigating thermal resistance shot sleeve heat loss effect of conventional HTC values.

Excerpt from the December 2014 article from Foundry Management & Technology by R. Bhola and S. Chandra

The term "thin-wall castings" for the HPDC process has been investigated for well over two decades.  However, the perception of what is considered a thin-walled part has changed over the years and continues to change.  Historically, 3-mm wall thickness was considered a thin HPDC part and that number decreased over the years to 2 mm, and further to 1 mm. Currently, there is a push for even thinner walled parts in the electronics industry, with thickness demands as low as 0.6 mm.  The automotive industry has been looking to make ultra large castings (ULC) using various processes, including semi-solid, permanent mold, and HPDC processes, with target thickness in the range of 1 to 2 mm[2].

Thin-walled parts are difficult to cast because the melt cools rapidly upon contact with the relatively cold die steel and can solidify quickly before die filling is complete.  The distance a given molten material travels before it freezes and stops moving is commonly referred to as "fluidity".  The dominant variables affecting fluidity are: thermophysical properties of the melt; the temperature of the melt above liquidus (superheat); and mold coating release agent[3,4].  Much of this work on quantifying fluidity was based on experiments under low pressures, generally not exceeding 15 psi to force the liquid metal through a passage. 

Further, die temperature and the heat-transfer coefficient at the die surface do not seem to be considered properties that define fluidity, though Dewhirst[4] acknowledged that the heat-transfer coefficient at the mold surface does play a significant role in the measured flow lengths for a given alloy type under given test conditions.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Mold Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, Die Casting Lubrication and Application, die casting lubricant management, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

New-Generation Die Cooling and Die Lubricant Application Systems

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 10, 2020 3:23:40 PM

Problems with conventional approaches to forging-die lubrication can be eliminated with a system that uses PLC-controlled positive-displacement pumping systems.

Excerpt from the November 2007 Forging Magazine article by the Forging staff

In the forging process, friction between die and part, consistency of friction from part to part, and consistency of die temperature all affect not only the part quality and part tolerances, but also die life, and hence operating efficiency and operating costs.

Indeed, die life is affected not only by thermal cycling but also by friction between the die and the part being formed, variations of which greatly affect the severity of thermal cycling itself. Die designers base their designs on assumed, given friction. Presses also are designed based on loads caused by formation of parts, and these loads are affected significantly by friction, in addition to temperature and material being formed. Even billet weight is based on estimated material flow which, again, is greatly impacted by temperature and friction.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Mold Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, Die Casting Lubrication and Application, die casting lubricant management, Forging Magazine

Die Soldering in Aluminum Die Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 3, 2020 4:11:49 PM

Excerpt from the U.S. Department of Energy article by Q. Han, E.A. Kenik and S. Viswanathan 

Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, die casting lubricant management

Blistering in Semi-Solid Die Casting of Aluminum Alloys and Its Avoidance

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 28, 2020 11:07:38 AM

Excerpt from the article in the June 2005 issue of Acta Materialia by X.G. Hu, Q. Zhu, S.P. Madison, H.V. Atkinson, et. al.

Semi-solid die casting of relatively high solid-fraction aluminum alloys (0.5–0.7 fraction solid) can be used for the production of high quality industrial components. However, surface blistering during solution heat treatment can still be a problem and is associated with the entrapment of gas whether from air or from burned lubricant. Here the mechanism for formation of blisters is presented. The Reynolds number in the surface layer of the semi-solid flow is then analyzed to obtain the relationships with hydraulic diameter and flow velocity for different slurry temperatures. The hypothesis is that it is some flow instability at the flow front, even where the overall nature of the flow is essentially laminar, which is leading to the entrapment. The crucial finding is that if the Reynolds number is plotted against temperature there is a decrease followed by an increase. The position of this minimum is dependent on the ratio of fill velocity to the hydraulic diameter, v/D. Thus there is a ‘sweet spot’ in terms of temperature (i.e. fraction liquid), flow velocity and hydraulic diameter (i.e. die design) where the flow front has the maximum stability, giving maximum resistance to blister formation. This is in contrast with conventional wisdom which would suggest that low fractions liquid would give the most stable flow front. A rationale for this is presented in terms of the particle crowding at the relatively low fraction of liquid.

Experimental results with aluminum alloy 319s as an exemplar, and a die which has varying cross sectional dimensions, are presented and validate the hypothesis.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Release Agents for Die Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Defects, Die Casting Lubricant, Aluminum Die Casting, die casting lubricant management, acta materialia

Video News Update: Die Casting Lubricants, Applications and Effects

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 12, 2020 11:20:00 AM

NADCA Video News & Information

The material presented in this video are some highlights from NADCA’s online webinar - Die Casting Lubricants, Application and Effects. The application and background of pulse spray is reviewed. Actual Case Studies are reviewed on the application of pulse spray in two die casting facilities. Electrostatic Spray - The basic principles of electrostatic spray are reviewed. The application of electrostatic spray is demonstrated. Plunger Lubrication - The function, chemistry and application of plunger lubricants are reviewed. This webinar also reviews the effect on quality of die cast parts if the plunger application is not closely controlled.


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Tags: Die Casting, Metal Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Defects, NADCA Video Highlight

Video News Update: Product Design for Die Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 15, 2020 8:00:00 AM

NADCA Video News & Information

The material presented in this video are some highlights from NADCA’s online webinar - Product Design for Die Casting. This initial webinar in the series will provide an introduction and overview of the die casting process.


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Tags: Die Casting, Metal Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Defects, NADCA Video Highlight

Video News Update: Die Casting Spray

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 18, 2019 3:42:21 PM

NADCA Video News & Information

The material presented in this video are some highlights from NADCA’s online webinar - Die Spray. Die spray is essential for applying release agent to the die. It is also used to help control the die temperature and temperature distribution. This course will give an overview of the literature addressing spray. The overview will finish with applications and areas to explore in your own plant to reduce spray use and casting defects. The following topics ware addressed in this course: Die Spray, Flow rate, Spray angle, Time, Die temperature, Effects of die spray and Strategies for improved die spray.


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Tags: Die Casting, Metal Casting, Aluminum Die Casting Process, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Defects, NADCA Video Highlight

 


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