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Die Casting News

Using PVD Coatings to Reduce Die Casting Costs

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 13, 2021 4:49:57 PM

Coating can address heat checking, excessive soldering, and erosion, to extend die life, reduce die maintenance, and minimize overall manufacturing costs.

Excerpt from the Foundry Management & Technology February 2020 article by David Bell, Viktor Khominich, and Steve Midson.

Die casting often is the lowest-cost method to produce castings, especially when large volumes of components are required. However, the reusable steel dies used in die casting typically are expensive, and may be a significant portion of overall production costs. Therefore, extending die life can have a significant effect on reducing production costs. Dies typically fail for one of three reasons: heat checking, excessive soldering, or erosion. Using PVD coatings to address these mechanisms can extend die life, reduce die maintenance, and so minimize overall manufacturing costs.

Die casting involves injecting liquid metal into a reusable steel die at extremely high rates (gates speeds between 80-250 ft/sec, cavity fill times of 0.05-0.2 sec) and high pressures (6,000 to 15,000 psi.) Due to these aggressive conditions, soldering (sticking) of the castings to the die can be a problem, and to minimize soldering, casters use a water-based organic lubricant (basically a parting agent) sprayed onto the die face before each shot. The lubricant forms a barrier between the casting and the steel die to minimize soldering and sticking.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Combining Toughness, Thermal Resistance in HPDC Die Steel

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 7, 2021 10:32:01 AM

New automotive casting objectives highlight the deficiencies in standard tooling materials, but an alternative promises quality, lower cost, longer tool life, and more

Excerpt from the Foundry Management & Technology November 2019 article

The difficulties of casting high-volume automotive parts are well established, and those issues become more critical in production of critically engineered parts, such as the increasing volume of parts produced by high-pressure die casting (HPDC.) Three experts in hot-work production addressed the issues recently in a white paper for Uddeholm AB's newly developed Uddeholm Dievar 25 Joules tool steel for die manufacturing. It gives "the perfect balance between toughness and heat-checking" for HPDC, and other applications, they claim.

Most dies used by foundries, diecasters, and OEMs are formed in AISI H13 or H11, but the Uddeholm experts raise the concern that the die-related problems of HPDC powertrain and transmission castings have not changed in decades, and may be more acute with the advent of production for hybrid and electric vehicle castings.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, High Pressure Die Casting, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, Die Casting Engineer

The Exclusion of Inclusions in High-Pressure Die Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 30, 2020 9:07:08 AM

Identifying the Causes and Determining the Solutions

Excerpt from the Die Casting Engineer January 2008 article by Dr. David V. Neff

Defective castings, scrap... Yikes! — The scourge of the high pressure die caster trying to make a good living in a highly competitive marketplace! What's a body to do? Well, for one thing, he can try to avoid making defective castings in the first place! But just what is a "defective" casting? For this article, we wish to consider a defective casting as one which has a defect, right? But there are many ways that a casting can be "defective." For our purposes, we shall limit this discussion to those defective castings where the cause can be attributed to "inclusion" defects — out of the many other defects and their causes that possibly could exist. Inclusions in castings are foreign bodies that exist in the finished casting and are detrimental to the casting's properties and functionality. Where do they come from? If they are present, how do we get rid of them? More importantly, how can we avoid the "inclusion of the inclusion" into the casting in the first place? So, let's start at the beginning.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, Die Casting Engineer

High-Pressure Die Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 23, 2020 11:30:06 AM

Excerpt from the May 2020 article from the Engineering.com article by Dr. Jody Muelaner

A key process for close-to-market manufacturing of high-value products.

Products are getting more complex, with organic shapes increasingly being specified to achieve the required strength while minimizing material use. There is also a trend for re-shoring and producing goods closer to the market where they are sold. The usual business case for close-to-market manufacturing is being able to respond quickly to increasingly dynamic markets. Reducing the carbon footprint involved in transporting goods and making supply chains more resilient are also important drivers. The current need for an urgent ramp-up in ventilator production has sharply brought into focus the need to respond rapidly to increasing demand with a resilient supply chain. Additive manufacturing (AM) plays into both trends. It is making people believe that products can be any shape we like and that they can be locally produced. In reality, AM has little scope to replace conventional production in the foreseeable future. Issues with material properties, feedstock costs, machine costs and build speeds mean that AM will remain a relatively niche process.

This article gives a detailed overview of another highly automated manufacturing process that can produce complex shapes in high-strength alloys. Die-casting may not be a new technology, but it is very well-suited to many modern products. I recently reported on how European bicycle manufacturers are re-shoring production as demand for high-quality e-bikes ramps up rapidly. These are sophisticated machines that use aerospace-grade materials with correspondingly high prices. In that article, I noted the importance of automation when re-shoring production into high-wage economies and identified high-pressure die casting as the most highly-automated process for high-quality bicycle frames. High-pressure die casting is a highly automated process that can economically produce parts with very complex shapes. It is typically suited to high-volume production. This article explores the process in detail, looking at tooling requirements, breakeven volumes, material properties and surface finish.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management

NADCA Webinars: Defects in Die Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 9, 2020 8:59:25 PM

The material presented in this video are some highlights from NADCA’s online webinar - Defects in Die Casting: Surface Defects and Other Problems. This second course covers defects caused by such things as venting problems, surface defects such as “white surface” and die spray marking. It then goes into the two main types of cracking, leakers, flash and flaking/spalling during machining.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, NADCA Education

Effective Die Coating for Maximum Value

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 25, 2020 8:00:00 AM

Excerpt from the Jan. 2013 Foundry & Management Technology article by John Hall.

Starting a new die Die coating application Die heating, coating

Die coating in gravity diecasting is one of the operational parameters of the casting process that is often overlooked or misunderstood. Die coatings are necessary for three basic reasons.

Coatings provide a protective barrier between the die and the casting to prevent die erosion and wear. Coatings provide some degree of control over the solidification rate and direction. Coatings provide a barrier between the die and casting so that the casting will release from the die.

With proper use, a die coating can be used to control the thermal gradients such that directional solidification can be achieved.  This allows a pathway for feed metal to flow into the solidifying structure and compensate for normal metal shrinkage during solidification.  This is particularly important in castings with thin sections that expand to thicker sections:  The thin areas must remain open to ensure that shrinkage will not occur in the adjacent thick section.

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Tags: Die Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, Squeeze Casting

Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 18, 2020 1:53:58 PM

Excerpt from the report by Ohio State Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering professor R. Allen Miller.

2.1 Characterization of loads on die and machine

The die and the machine together function as a system. Analysis of both is important in understanding the distortions of the die. The die and the machine are subject to thermal and mechanical loads during the course of a casting cycle. These forces cause the die and machine behavior to change due to deflection and distortion of the components in their assembly. For studying the loads on the die casting die, the process has to be studied over an entire casting cycle. The forces can broadly be categorized as mechanical loads and thermal loads.

The different stages of a casting cycle are listed below:

1. The die locks up and a clamping force is applied.
2. Hot molten metal is injected at high temperature. The loads involved are due to momentum of incoming metal, heat released during the filling process, and the sudden pressure spike as the cavity becomes completely full.
3. The molten metal is held inside the die and an intensification pressure is applied during solidification.
4. The part is held in the die for a short time to remove additional heat.
5. The die is opened and the part ejected.
6. The die remains open for lubricant and cooling spray and the cycle repeats.

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Tags: Die Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, Squeeze Casting

Find Out How Spray and Lubricant Affect Die Casting Quality

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 11, 2020 2:54:10 PM

Register for Two Upcoming NADCA-Sponsored Webinars

This series will look at, die sprays, plunger lubricants and their effect on casting quality. With an in-depth discussion of both die and plunger lubricants we will look at their chemistry, function, application and effects on casting production and quality. The course will review pulse spray, its application and results at two production facilities. Hydrostatic spray will also be reviewed with application examples and use of hydrostatic spray.

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Tags: Die Casting, Die Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Release Agent, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, NADCA Education

NADCA Die Casting Congress Awards 2020 - Aluminum Die Casting Under 1 Lb

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 4, 2020 12:46:38 PM

For the last 46 years, NADCA has sponsored its International Die Casting Design Competition to showcase outstanding die cast designs while acknowledging the continuous contribution die casters provide to the manufacturing industry. As die castings become more complex, higher quality, lower cost, and more unique, it becomes important for die casters to be involved in the process early in the product’s design phase. A die casting is not a machined part, sand casting, or an extrusion. It is critical for die casters to effectively communicate to the designer requirements to make a quality casting. The winners of the 2020 International Die Casting Competition have exhibited a close relationship with their customer to produce castings that have a complex design, high quality, and ingenuity. These castings often expand the market for die casting and reduce the cost of the part compared to the previous manufacturing method.

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Tags: Die Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, NADCA

NADCA Die Casting Congress Awards 2020 - Aluminum 1-10 lbs.

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 29, 2020 4:58:22 PM

For the last 46 years, NADCA has sponsored its International Die Casting Design Competition to showcase outstanding die cast designs while acknowledging the continuous contribution die casters provide to the manufacturing industry. As die castings become more complex, higher quality, lower cost, and more unique, it becomes important for die casters to be involved in the process early in the product’s design phase. A die casting is not a machined part, sand casting, or an extrusion. It is critical for die casters to effectively communicate to the designer requirements to make a quality casting. The winners of the 2020 International Die Casting Competition have exhibited a close relationship with their customer to produce castings that have a complex design, high quality, and ingenuity. These castings often expand the market for die casting and reduce the cost of the part compared to the previous manufacturing method.

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Tags: Die Casting, Squeeze Casting Release Agents, Die Casting Lubricants, Die Casting Lubricant, Die Casting Process, die casting lubricant management, NADCA

 


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