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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

"P" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Liquid Parting Products)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 20, 2018 9:39:30 AM

P - Foundry Additives Glossary

PANTHER CREEK (See: BENTONITE-BONDS-CLAY-SOUTH­ERN BENTONITE)

PARAFFIN (See: WAX)
It is one of the waxes used for making wax patterns in the "Lost Wax Process." It is used as a release agent for liquid partings when it is dissolved in a liquid carrier such as kerosene. (See: PARAFFIN OIL.)

PARAFFIN OIL (See: OILS)
This is the drip oil from the wax presses in processing an extracted paraffin wax from the wax bearing distillate in the refining of petroleum. The oil is treated, redistilled, and separated into various grades of lubricating oils varying from light to heavy. They may be treated and bleached with sulfuric acid, or neutralized with an alkali. They may be bleached with acid. The specific gravity of paraffin oil varies between 21° and 26° Baume. Paraffin oil is used in many liquid foundry parting compounds when blended with kerosene, which is used as the carrier oil. It is usually soluble in ether, benzene and essential oils.

PARTING COMPOUND (See: AGATE-DRY PARTING-FUEL OIL-KEROSENE-LIQUID PARTING-LYCOPODIUM­ MICA-MINERAL FLOUR-PARAFFIN OIL-PARTING RELEASE AGENT-SOAPSTONE-TALC-WAX)
Materials used to separate patterns from the molding or core sand mixtures. Parting compounds may be dry parting dusted or sprayed as a liquid parting onto the patterns or core boxes so as to prevent any mold or core adherence.

PARTINGS (See: DRY PARTING-LIME-LIQUID PARTING­-LYCOPODIUM-MICA-MINERAL FLOUR-PARTING COMPOUND-TALC) 

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Mike Rowe on when to Pursue Trades, Passion and Opportunity

Posted by John Hitch on Jun 12, 2018 4:48:03 PM

For the host of several shows that add a positive luster to rugged industrial work, America’s $1 trillion in student loans and 6 million open jobs doesn’t add up. He explains how it happened and how to fix it.

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Article Review: Electric Vehicles and the Prospects for Aluminum Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 5, 2018 12:52:19 PM

Improving battery technology and pending regulations on internal combustion engines are boosting the outlook for EVs, which means new possibilities — and some risks — for foundries and die casters.

by Jost Gaertner, Foundry Management and Technology | Jun 01, 2018

Electric vehicle (EV) prices are falling faster than predicted, and the consumers’ cost of ownership could reach parity with standard internal-combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in Europe as early as 2018, according to USB. Forecasts for EV sales are being revised upward, as the technology improves, promising longer ranges and shorter charging times in the near future.

Meanwhile, the list of countries imposing regulations (or even bans) on ICE vehicles is growing longer. The Netherlands and India recently announced complete sales bans on ICE vehicles starting in 2025 and 2030, respectively, while China and EU have sales quota systems on the agenda for plug-in electric (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Foundry Additives Glossary, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, aluminum casting

"O" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Core Oils )

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 30, 2018 3:32:49 PM

O - Foundry Additives Glossary

OAT FLOUR (See: CEREAL)
Although oat flour is used in the foundry in core and molding sand mixtures it is used sparingly. Corn flour, gelatinized, is generally preferred. Oat flour doesn't give the deformation and strengths in sand mixtures as does corn flour cereal.

OHIO FIRE CLAY (See: FIRECLAY)
Is a plastic fireclay bond which is a sedimentary clay deposit. They are coal measure clays. The Ohio fireclays that are used for bonding purposes are refractory. When finely ground they are called "bonding clays"; when more coarsely prepared, they are said to be "refractory clays," for use in ladles, furnaces, and other such mix­tures.

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"N" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Core Binders)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 15, 2018 3:26:40 PM

N - Foundry Additives Glossary

NAPHTHALENE
Is also known as "NAPHTHALIN"-"WHITE TAR" or "TAR CAMPHOR." Its chemical composition is [C10H8J. Its molecular weight is 128.2. It has the odor of mothballs and is derived from coal tar where it is the most abundant single constituent. It is crystallized from the middle or "carbolic oil" fraction of the distilled tar. It is con­tained in a few liquid sprays used in the foundry, such as certain liquid partings.

NATURAL ROSIN (See: BINDERS-BONDS-PINE RESIN-RES­INS-ROSIN-TRULINE BINDER)
A hard resin left after distilling-off the volatile oil of turpentine. It generally has a higher melting point than other resins. The natural resins are used as supporting sand core binders in making heavy cores or molds which require baking. Resins work best with higher temper water levels in a foundry sand mixture. They also work best where clay is used in the sand mixture. Rosin is blended into core oil and enhances core mixtures which contain cereal, dextrin, lignin sulphite and other water soluble additives.

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"M" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Core Oils)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 9, 2018 3:43:18 PM

M - Foundry Additives Glossary

MAGNESITE
Is a refractory mineral called magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). It has some contaminants present, such as iron carbonate (FeCO3) and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) present. Its specific gravity is 3.1 and it is fused at 3929°F. (2165° C.). For foundry preparation and use it is a very valuable refractory aggregate particularly where basic refractories are required. Magnesite, when finely ground, is added to chrome sand mixtures as (MgO). MgO is also used as a foundry sand in certain mixtures. Where basic lined furnaces are in operation, dead burned magnesite is used. It is a hard, dense, granular material obtained by calcining magnesite rock at a temperature high enough to form a product inert to atmospheric moisture and carbon dioxide. It is chiefly magnesia (MgO) and is a basic refractory. In the casting of manganese steel, olivine sand or chromite Hevi-Sand containing 10% to 15% MgO addition is an excellent core sand base.

MANGANESE DIOXIDE
An oxidizing agent, MnO2, can be made synthetically or may be found as an ore, known as "bog manganese" or "wad." It has many uses in the foundry, one use being in core sand mixtures for oxidizing purposes. Small amounts are used, such as 0.25 percent.

MENHADEN OIL (See: CORE OIL-OILS)
An oil obtained by steaming or boiling fish caught along the U.S.A. Atlantic coast line. It is also called, "Porgy Oil," "Whitefish Oil," and in the South it is called, "Fatback" and "Moss Bunker." The oil contains 27% oleic acid, stearic acid and a few fats, so that it polymerizes as easily as vegetable oil used in core oils.

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"L" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Lignin "Goulac" core binder)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 24, 2018 11:41:09 PM

L - Foundry Additives Glossary

LAC (See: RESIN-SHELLAC)

LAKE SAND (See: SAND, LAKE)
Sand occurring in, or near, lake areas which may contain some impurities is called "Lake Sand." It is used in many Midwestern foun­dry core and molding compositions. It is an economical foundry base sand.

LAMPBLACK (See: CARBON -CARBON BLACK
Lampblack is actually soot formed by the smudge process of burning oils, resins, tars, or other carbonaceous material where there is an insufficient supply of air. The soot is allowed to settle on the metallic, cooler walls or areas before it is collected. Lampblack is practically pure carbon. It is used in the foundry as a coloring agent and in a few commercial facing mixtures. Chemically it resembles carbon black which is made by burning gas. Lampblack is very fine and colloidal in form. One pound may occupy over 200 cubic inches in volume.

LARD Oil (See: LIQUID PARTINGS-OILS-PARTINGS)
Lard oil is a fluid oil which contains oleic, stearic and palmatic acids. It is widely used in foundry lubricating oils, but it is also used in many liquid partings of the foundry. It is usually blended with kerosene and other compatible liquids. It has a specific gravity of 0.92. Lard has been used in the past as an additive for certain core oils, as a pattern or core box release.

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"K" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (Green Sand Foundry Supplies) 

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 10, 2018 12:18:02 PM

K - Foundry Additives Glossary

KAOLIN (See: BONDING CLAY-CLAYS-FIRECLAY)
Kaolin is commonly called "kaolinite" as well as "China clay" in the ceramic industry. It is a hydrous aluminum silicate. It is a clay that has the composition of (2SiO2 • Al203 • 2H20). It is used through­out the foundry industry from refractories to bonding purposes, as well as in many foundry compounds and commercial foundry mixtures.
The fireclays used in the foundry are commonly called "kaolinites" but the fireclays contain impurities such as feldspar, fine quartz sand, mica and iron oxide. A true kaolinite clay generally has a specific gravity of 2.6 to 2.63 and a Moh's hardness of 2.0 to 2.5. When wetted, kaolin can be made into shapes and will retain these shapes after they are baked or fired. Most commercial "Kaolin" grades of clay are used by the ceramic industry and the whiter burning "Kaolins" are washed and shipped from the South for use as Green Sand Foundry Supplies. 

KAOLINITE (See: CLAYS -KAOLIN)

KELP (See: SODIUM ALGINATE)

KEROSENE (See: CORE OILS-FUEL OIL-OILS-PETROLEUM)
Kerosene is known in some localities as "Coal Oil." It is a light, oily, liquid prepared from the distillation of petroleum oils. It distills­ off after the gasoline. It is a hydrocarbon having the composition (C10H22 to C16H31). Its specific gravity is between 0.75 and 0.78. It burns freely but it is not so volatile as to be explosive, therefore, it is used in the foundry to prevent molding sands from drying-out. It is, and has been, used to replace some percentage of seacoal. Many liquid partings contain kerosene. Core oils contain kerosene, as a low tem­perature and faster baking ingredient, or a similar light oil.

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"I" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (Green Sand Additive Products)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 27, 2018 2:56:47 PM

I - Foundry Additives Glossary

ILLITE (See: CLAYS-SHALE)

INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL (See: ETHYL ALCOHOL)

INHIBITORS
Are agents which prevent decomposition, or retard decomposition rates to acceptable levels. They are widely used in magnesium molding sands to diminish oxidation rates which can cause severe fire conditions or explosions. Materials such as boric acid, sulphur or a fluoride are used to prevent the burning of molten magnesium alloys when poured in foundry molds, and are called inhibitors. These inhibitors restrain an undesirable mold-metal chemical reaction generally due to the oxygen reaction in the mold cavity when the hot metal enters the mold.

INORGANIC BINDERS
Binders such as clay, bentonite, cement, sodium silicate, silicon esters, and others are classified as inorganic binders. Some metallic salts are so classified in the foundry. Usually, foundry binders of this type are more refractory than the organic type. They do not decom­pose as fast and have more durability.

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"H" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Core And Mold Coatings)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 13, 2018 1:25:00 PM

H - Foundry Additives Glossary

HALITE (See: SALT)

HEMATITE (See: FERRIC OXIDE-IRON ORE OXIDE-IRON OXIDE-KLEAN SURF IRON OXIDE)

HEVI-SAND (See: CHROMITE OR CHROMITE-SPINEL)

HEXA (See: NOVALAK)
Is a compound of formaldehyde and ammonia. It is used as a catalyst for the two step novalak resin binder in amounts of 10% to 17 % of the resin weight. Hexa is used with a lubricant (usually cal­cium stearate) in amounts of 4% to 6% of the resin incorporated into its weight. Hexa may also be added separately to the sand mixture during the coating process.

HEXAMETHYLENE-TETRAMINE (See: HEXA-RESINS)
Also known as Metheneamine [C6H12N4] and Hexamine or Hexa. Its molecular weight is 140.2. It is a compound from reactions of formaldehyde and ammonia. It occurs as a crystal or powder. Hexamine sublimes at 263°C. (506°F.) without melting. It is highly soluble in water, while sparingly soluble in alcohol. It is used in the manufacture of resin and also used as a white powder catalyst with phenolic resins for precoating the sand grains. In water, it is used as a quench during the hot sand coating operation for shell molds or cores. 

HEXAMINE (See: CATALYST-HEXA-HEXAMETHYLENE­-TETRAMINE-RESINS)
It is called a powder catalyst in the foundry for use with phenolic resins for precoating sand grains. Several commercial grades are available.

HI-EARLY PORTLAND CEMENT (See: CEMENT)
A special blend of Portland Cement designed to reach ultimate strength in 3 to 7 days, as contrasted to regular Portland Cement that requires 28 days for complete curing. Such a rapid curing cement depends upon its composition, fineness and environment to create this more rapid curing.

HOT BOX BINDER (See: HOT BOX RESIN-RESINS)
Any resin binder designed to cure from the heat generated in a metal core box. They consist of copolymers of (urfuryl alcohol, urea and formaldehyde or phenol, urea and for­maldehyde.

HOT BOX RESIN (See: HOT BOX BINDERS-PHENOLIC MODI­FIED FORMALDEHYDE-FURFURYL ALCOHOL-RESINS-UREA-FORMALDEHYDE-FURFURYL RESIN -UFFA)
Urea-formaldehyde-furfuryl alcohol resin (UFFA) is a liquid type used in the Hot Box process. A phenolic modified formaldehyde furfuryl. alcohol (PFFA) is also a liquid type used for the Hot Box process. There is still a resin manufactured by polymerizing phenol - urea -furfuryl alcohol with formaldehyde which can be used for the Hot Box process. A typical sand binder composition may be 30-80 parts of a urea compound to methaldehyde (HCHO). 5 to 50 parts may be furfuryl alcohol. Sugars, or other such additives may be added for specific reasons. Foundries having a high volume core production are more interested in the Hot Box process than smaller production foundries. There are various combinations of urea, phenol, and fur­furyl alcohol used in certain systems. Acid salts such as ammonium chloride are used as catalysts, or activators.

HOT COATING BINDER (See: RESINS-SHELL MOLDING)
One binder used is a flaked, phenolic, novalac resin. The resin melts and coats the sand surface. Hill and Griffith offers a full line of Core And Mold Coatings - Refractory coatings provide molds and cores with an impervious barrier between the sand surface and the molten metal. This ensures excellent sand peel from casting with improved casting finish.

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