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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Bringing Big Data to Green-Sand Processing and Control

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 19, 2019 5:19:18 PM

Cloud-based software promises to reduce green sand casting rejects and optimize additive consumption by applying predictive and prescriptive data analytics, machine learning and IoT functions to green-sand molding

Excerpt from the March 2019 issue of Foundry Management & Technology

The Smart factory "vision" is gaining global acceptance. It involves integrating data analytics, machine learning and IoT by incorporating sensors, SCADA and line-speed or near-real-time data-based analytics for process optimization. Predictive and prescriptive data decision-support, predicting highly accurate outcome has shifted the paradigm in manufacturing and many other industrial and consumer sectors. For manufacturers, rapid proliferation and advancement of information technologies, such as cloud computing, allows them to generate and store huge volumes of data.

In addition, the digitalization of the green sand casting process automation has empowered industries to collect and transmit near-real-time data. Cloud computing ensures data availability without geographic or physical limitations. By leveraging the power of data-based analytics and machine learning, industries are generating significant tangible and intangible profits.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Solving Hot-Sand Problems: A guide, and a solution

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 5, 2019 9:03:10 PM

Todays foundries cannot afford to sacrifice the efficiency and profits that are the consequences of poorly controlled hot molding sand.

Excerpt from the June 2003 issue of Foundry Management & Technology

Metalcasting researchers say hot sand is the leading sand-related problem for today’s foundries. Most metalcasters recognize a relationship between reduced casting quality, increased process variation, and other molding inefficiencies that result from using hot molding sands. Studies show that hot sand affects virtually every operation in the production line.

System sand returned to the muller for reconditioning with a temperature of 160°F (approximately 70°C) or greater is considered to be excessively hot. Return sand ranging from 120° to 160°F (approx. 49°-70°C) is hot enough to demonstrate inconsistent properties during mixing and to be very difficult to control.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Robotic Green Sand Printing a "Game Changer"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 29, 2019 5:43:00 PM

Excerpt from the November 2017 issue of Additive Manufacturing by Brent Donaldson

Atop a high plateau between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, American manufacturing used to run through the heart of Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Or at least large deposits of high-carbon anthracite coal, the discovery of which helped launch the United States to global dominance in manufacturing throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Today, tucked behind the Weir Minerals building off of North Cedar Street, you’ll find the Hazleton Casting Company(HCC)—a specialty high alloy foundry that utilizes centuries-old techniques for its casting operations, which serve makers of pumps and valves among many other manufacturers. But you’ll find something else there, too: a quiet glimpse into the future of industrial foundry operations.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Additive Manufacturing

Defect Detective: Common Green Sand Flaws

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 22, 2019 3:47:48 PM

Green sand quality control, including good critical visual inspection, helps avoid scrapped castings.

Excerpt from the July 2018 issue of Modern Casting by the AFS Institute

Quality control begins with prevention. Metalcasters can control five areas of green sand mold making in order to prevent mold defects:

  • The selection of type of sand and clay and the amount of moisture needed to make the mold. 
  • Consistent mulling, using the right sequence of raw materials, and selecting the right temperature of the sand.
  • The cleanliness and condition of horizontal and vertical patterns, as well as core placement.
  • Selection of scrap metal and determining what can be reused and what must be discarded.
  • Testing for quality ensures the part meets the requirement of the buyer. While casting can be tested many ways, one of the major casting quality tests used after the casting is made is visual inspection.


Nine common types of green sand casting defects can be visually identified:

  • cracks
  • holes
  • rough surfaces
  • tear-up/drop
  • friable edges
  • excess parting spray
  • missing components
  • loose sand
  • sand contamination
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Robotic Core Setting for Permanent Mold Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 15, 2019 7:00:00 AM

Excerpt from the October 2013 issue of Foundry Management & Technology by Mark Riekert and John Kuhn

Robotic sand core setting into a mold has the potential to increase molding productivity and reduce casting scrap.

With the evolution of casting designs, driven by requirements for lower-weight parts and (in automotive applications) a desire to minimize assemblies, there follow designs with thinner walls and smaller openings/cavities.  These structures need cores to create those thin wall sections, and in some examples these walls are as thin as 4 mm.  In addition, small cores are used to create small openings and cavities. 


Adding to the difficulty of the arrangement, gripping the core was a very specific challenge. The end-of-arm tool (EOAT) or end effector uses a rubber "squash" ring to expand inside a hole in the core, and a parallel gripper to contain the tail section of the core without actually gripping it. The core was specially designed with a hole to allow the tool to grip it.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Breaking the Mold: 3D Printing for Green Sandcasting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 9, 2019 5:20:13 PM

Excerpt from the January 2017 issue of American Society of Mechanical Engineers

“When you walk into a foundry, one of the things you are likely to see is a section of the building with rows and rows and rows of match plates with patterns on them,” says Howard Rhett, technical support leader for Viridis3D, of the sandcasting business.

These patterns are the copies of parts that they’ve made for other companies. They’re kept on hand so that the foundries can again pack sand around them to make a new mold when called upon to make the part again. “They have to make them, have to keep the stuff in inventory. The foundry is actually paying to keep these things warehoused,” he says.


A 3D mold printed from a CAD file. Image: Viridis3D

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Green Sand Foundry System: Go With the Flow

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 1, 2019 8:00:00 AM

Excerpt from the October 2015 issue of Modern Casting

Every metalcasting facility is unique, but a department-by-department examination may highlight ways to improve operations and reduce costs.

No matter the size of a metalcasting operation, whether it’s a small, family-run shop or a mega facility with volumes in the millions, the question of modernization is not an “if” but a “when.” Machinery fails. Maintenance gives way to replacement. Upgrades need to be made.

Projects can be as simple as swapping out an old welding machine for a new one. They also can involve many more moving parts, such as a new molding line, which requires engineering and logistical planning far more advanced than simply sticking a plug in the wall. Every improvement project requires planning and engineering to ensure it fits into the broader facility-wide material flow and handling.


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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

20 Green Sand Casting Defects and Their Suggested Remedies

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 24, 2019 2:30:50 PM

Originally published January 2017 by Mechanical Engineering

Probable causes and suggested remedies of various casting defects such as blow holes, shrinkage, porosity, misruns, hot tears, mental penetration, cold shuts, cuts and washes, inclusions, fusion, drops, shot metal, shift, crushes, rat-tails, swells, hard spot, run out, fins and fash, spongings and warpage are given in the below table.

Photo credit: Green Mechanic

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Mechanical Engineer

A Case for Low-Pressure Sand Casting of Aluminum

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 18, 2019 9:46:59 AM

LESS COMMON THAN GRAVITY SAND CASTING AND LOW-PRESSURE PERMANENT MOLD CASTING, LOW-PRESSURE SAND MOLDING HOLDS A DISTINCT COMBINATION OF ADVANTAGES FOR LARGE ALUMINUM CASTINGS.

Originally published in the January/February 2016 issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing by Franco Chiesa and Jocelyn Baril

A majority of aluminum castings are produced via sand or permanent mold casting, but for large precision components, another viable option is low-pressure sand casting, which uses principles from both low-pressure permanent mold (LPPM) and gravity pour sand casting.

Low-pressure sand casting marries the use of bottom pouring for tranquil filling of the mold (which avoids metal oxidation) with the flexibility to make larger parts. The capable process can be ideal when producing large “top quality” aluminum castings. The process also can be considered when walls are too thin (such as 0.1 in. [2.5 mm]) to be obtained by gravity casting.

LPPM casting is a common process producing high-quality castings due to tranquil filling of the mold and the application of pressure to fill the mold efficiently and cleanly.

The two main characteristics of the LPPM process are:

1. The filling from the bottom of the mold is perfectly controlled compared to the turbulent flow associated with gravity casting. Also, the liquid metal is drawn from under the melt surface, preventing dross entrainment into the mold cavity.  

2. Efficient feeding from the bottom injection pipe occurs through pressure applied to the melt during solidification, eliminating the need for risers. The resulting yield is high: typically 80-90% versus 50-60% for gravity permanent mold casting. However, not all casting geometries are amenable to the LPPM process.

 

Figure 1: Low pressure sand mold

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

A 101 Guide to Green Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 4, 2019 9:52:51 AM

Originally published by Thomas Insights.

For millennia, sand casting has offered an indispensable way to create large volumes of similar products around the world. Manufacturing and engineering companies value sand casting for its ability to produce highly complex casts that work with many different metal alloys for large and small projects; more than 60% of all metal castings rely on sand casting process technologies.

Sand casting employs non-reusable sand molds to create metal castings. Sand casting produces parts ranging from very small (less than a pound) to very large and complex parts. Because sand casting can create products across a wide range of shapes, sizes, and materials, sand-casted products are:

  • Easily recyclable
  • Inexpensive
  • Able to withstand high temperatures
  • Suitable for low- and high-volume production
  • Able to work with almost any metal alloy 

Photo credit: Mr.1/Shutterstock.com

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Thomas Insights

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