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Concrete Casting News from the Hill and Griffith Company

12 Advantages of Large Scale Construction Precast Concrete

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 7, 2019 8:46:27 PM

Large-scale construction is a beast in a class of its own, and precast concrete is able to slay almost all of the worries it conjures up.

Traditional concrete building construction is fading away as more construction crews, planners and architects discover the precast concrete advantages.

Here are just 12 of the advantages of precast concrete strength and uniformity. They touch every aspect of building construction from how high you can go to making the final installation of plumbing, electrical, HVAC and other elements significantly easier.

Advantages-of-Precast-Concrete-2.jpg

1. STRUCTURALLY SECURE AND EFFICIENT
Traditional concrete building construction just can’t stand up to the precast concrete advantages and strength, especially when looking at large projects.

This post is from Nitterhouse Concrete Products2655 Molly Pitcher Hwy., Chambersburg, PA 17202


Precast concrete is specifically designed and constructed to have a significantly high span-to-depth ratio that allows it to bear loads better, reducing the need for additional columns and supports within the internal structure of the building. Its lighter weight can also reduce the size of needed structural material and overall foundational depth.

Precast concrete strength isn’t sacrificed by its lightweight construction, though, which means it’ll stay secure and even be put under reduced dead loads when properly installed. All of that weight savings paired with high strength means buildings can use precast concrete to reach heights of up to 80 stories.

Precast concrete strength isn’t sacrificed by its lightweight construction, though, which means it’ll stay secure and even be put under reduced dead loads when properly installed. All of that weight savings paired with high strength means buildings can use precast concrete to reach heights of up to 80 stories.

The NCPA’s guide to precast concrete says that, compared to traditional concrete building construction, precast concrete can reduce floor depths by up to four inches. So, this savings on a 60-story building will reduce the overall height by an average of two stories’ worth, or 20 feet.

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All of that precast concrete uniformity means it is a denser construction that can reduce vibrations that move throughout the building. So for large-scale projects, especially those with open areas like concert halls, vibration in seats and stands is reduced to help increase enjoyment and minimize the risk of structural damage from large crowds.

These elements combine to make precast concrete an extremely safe building material that can help your construction crew meet the safety requirements for projects of almost any size and shape.

2. PREFABRICATED AND PREINSTALLED
Tilt-up concrete construction requires pouring and molding onsite limits what you can use it for when it comes to internal structures and foundations, as well as when your job requires significant utility access. For example, an airport has a vast array of technology that must always be operable, but it can’t have wires or other overhangs that move across its yard. This means everything possible runs through the foundation and base of the buildings.

Precast concrete allows construction teams to preinstall utility access, fixtures and other elements. Some of the more common inclusions are plumbing and communication lines, though the NPCA notes that preinstalled elements can even include windows.

During and after the precast concrete is made and molded, different utility panels can be added and installed. This allows construction crews to ensure there is access to utilities and other elements right away, so there’s less need for revisions or alteration of the concrete.

Larger elements can also be checked by electricians, plumbers and other specialized professionals before those blocks and units are installed. Crews only need to worry about connecting each unit and then performing a final test because each piece will be operational as it arrives.

Pre-installation of elements is a top way that precast concrete can save construction companies money and help them deliver projects on time, or even early — which is a significant way to boost a reputation.

3. WEATHER AND LARGE-SCALE PRECAST CONCRETE
Precast concrete is able to withstand flood damage, wind-blown debris, rain penetration and the methods we use to protect buildings and roads from these dangers. Studies have found that it can withstand many freeze-thaw cycles even better than other construction and building materials, so it won’t decay or crumble as it expands and contracts.

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Precast concrete’s strength and uniformity allow it to withstand these elemental changes more successfully than traditional concrete building construction.

4. THERMAL FRIENDLY
Large-scale infrastructure requirements create unique weather and element demands, including the ability to keep heat in during the cold months and keep heat out in the summer. When you’re not using the right materials, you’re looking at a significantly increased cost all year long.

Precast concrete advantages for the building owners are big, but many believe it’s thermal efficiency that’s among the most cost advantageous. Precast concrete is denser and less of a thermal conductor, so it doesn’t move heat around your building. That means you’ll reduce peak heating and cooling loads — this type of concrete is slow to react and easier to heat or cool relative to external and temperatures.

5. FIRE TOUGH
Precast concrete is fireproof when properly constructed and combined with the right insulation and paneling on walls and ceilings — it can limit a fire’s ability to spread between rooms.

Precast concrete itself also doesn’t catch fire, won’t burn and typically does not drip or melt unless there is a special additive layered on top or introduced into its construction.

Advantages-of-Precast-Concrete-3.jpg

Using precast concrete for all of the walls in a stairwell means the people inside will be protected, and the construction of your building can limit any harm or loss of life in the event of a future emergency.

And if there is a fire, the precast concrete strength and uniformity prevent it from major damage. In most cases, the building owner will need to replace paneling but not the concrete underneath. The damage would be mostly cosmetic, not foundational, and in areas like floors or ceilings, there may only be the need to perform a little cleaning and apply a new coat of pain.

6. RESISTANT TO CHEMICALS AND RUST
Rounding out the elemental protections of precast concrete is a high resistance to chemical exposures and rust. It has become a common material for docks, bridges, overpasses and more because interlocked precast concrete blocks maintain their resistance to oil and fuel spills. They don’t suffer significant harm and if a panel is damaged due to a chemical spill. It’s also much easier to replace with minimal impact to the overall structural integrity.

Precast concrete that’s exposed to rain and water is also less likely to rust than traditional concrete building construction as well. Internal rebar isn’t exposed as often due to the high strength of precast concrete, so it is a top choice for marinas and other locations on the water. Precast concrete is also resistant to many of the microbes common in our waterways, so there’s less decay that could possibly wind up exposing the internal steel.

7. TOUGH JOBS EVERY SINGLE DAY
Precast concrete’s chief advantage is that it can withstand the daily tasks of use without problem for years and years. Precast concrete’s strength allows it to support buildings, parking structures and other elements where there is significant everyday wear and tear. Its internal structure is resistant to dents, dings, chips and other damage that can come from slight bumps.

Precast concrete doesn’t bruise or wilt when it comes to a little punishment.

8. REDUCE NOISE INSIDE AND OUT
Precast concrete is incredibly dense, and the process used to create it makes it denser and more resilient than other concrete options. This density is why it is used in many walls and privacy construction elements for large-scale construction as well as sound walls around communities that may face a highway.

Precast concrete’s density effectively reduces sound and creates a privacy zone when it is used as a barrier in large-scale construction projects. This makes it a perfect option for both residential and commercial jobs.

The ability to deflect or absorb sound also makes precast concrete a smart acoustic material. For example, bounce away the road noise outside, while reflecting internal noise back toward the project’s center so your customers enjoy things like conversation and music inside their homes.

9. WI-FI FRIENDLY
Even the largest industrial construction project needs to account for the Wi-Fi and RF demands of the end customer. The great news is that precast concrete is actually relatively Wi-Fi friendly and may be more compatible with the wireless networking than other types of concrete — or other building materials.

Precast concrete allows more radio signals, Wi-Fi and other Internet networks to pass through more floors or walls, expanding support and limiting the cost the building owner or renter will need to expend to connect their entire office or store.

This is one of the chief reasons precast concrete has started to show up in schools, homes, office parks, hotels, restaurants and small stores.

10. KEEP PESTS OUT
Another reason you’ll see precast concrete in all of those locations is because it can be a deterrent to pests like rats, mice and termites. The precast concrete density is a big boost for keeping these nuisances away.

The precast concrete advantages extend to pest control because it is not an organic building material. Organics such as wood are able to be chewed through by most vermin — and are the food itself for some bugs — which makes a building the perfect spot for the animals to live.

Your standard construction that uses organic materials ends up being a shelter from the elements for the pests as well as the people, which ruins the atmosphere and sometimes the safety of that location.

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11. SAFETY AND LARGE-SCALE INFRASTRUCTURE DEMANDS
In today’s world, we need to protect against a wide variety of threats, both from nature and from people. Precast concrete can assist in both of those areas.

Precast concrete strength adds a level of security that can prevent both break-ins and break-outs if your construction project is a high-value target from a corporate headquarters to a facility like a prison. Precast concrete resists most impacts and penetration attempts.

Attacks have happened at locations of all sorts, and precast concrete may add an extra layer of security to prevent collateral damage, harm from stray bullets and other manmade concerns.

On the natural side of things, precast concrete has become a default material for creating storm shelters, whether you’re trying to resist a tornado or a hurricane. Some precast concrete solutions on the market — typically small and made for residences — are even rated to survive F-5 tornadoes.

For your larger construction project, that means precast concrete will deliver a safer product that can withstand the rains and wind that are common all across the United States. You might not be able to ensure safety during the strongest of winds based solely on the use of precast concrete, but you can ensure employees sheltering in place have all the added protection that could be provided.

12. CUSTOMIZABLE FOR YOUR JOB
Large-scale infrastructure demands usually include a unique look and feel for the building in order for it to stand out and fit the nature of the company paying for its construction. This allows precast concrete to shine, from small unique locations to custom large-scale construction because it can be made into nearly any shape.

Precast construction is built with molds and forms, which are manufactured in all kinds of curves, bends, angles and odd designs. By working with a manufacturer during the planning stage, a construction project can turn to precast concrete for every aspect of a building, from core and foundational elements to the sound barriers, bridges and other secondary structures.

Custom molds allow even the largest-scale construction projects to have a custom element, and the use of master molds can allow for variance so a project has an appealing design that moves with the land. It’s not limited by curves or straight lines, and it can be designed and molded to match existing infrastructure. The molding process allows precast concrete to have the same shapes and patterns as any nearby location — even historical stone buildings or famous bricks.

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Those are just twelve of the many major precast concrete advantages. They may not all apply to your large-scale construction project, but we encourage you to reach out and contact us or ask your questions below to see what benefits you can achieve.

Precast concrete can meet many other large-scale infrastructure demands better than traditional concrete building construction. Our experts are on hand to help you discover what precast concrete products can deliver for your next project no matter what building type you’re working on, or how large of a project your plans are becoming.

 


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

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We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
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On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
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 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete Release Agents, Concrete Casting Supplies, Grifcote, Precast Concrete Form Release, Concrete Form Release Application, Form Release Application, Water Based Concrete Form Release, Precast Concrete Buildings, Concrete Casting Technical Support, Precast Concrete Careers

Concrete Release Agent Selection for NSF/ANSI 61 Potable Water

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 30, 2019 10:02:33 PM

If you manufacture, sell or distribute water treatment or distribution products in North America, your products are required to comply with NSF/ANSI 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects by most governmental agencies that regulate drinking water supplies.

NSFANSI 61 and Your Concrete Release Agent Selection

Developed by a team of scientists, industry experts and key industry stakeholders, NSF/ANSI 61 sets health effects criteria for many water system components including:

  • Protective barrier materials (cements, paints, coatings)
  • Joining and sealing materials (gaskets, adhesives, lubricants)
  • Mechanical devices (water meters, valves, filters)
  • Pipes and related products (pipe, hose, fittings)
  • Plumbing devices (faucets, drinking fountains)
  • Process media (filter media, ion exchange resins)
  • Non-metallic potable water materials

(From the NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) site.

Benefits of Certification

Certification to NSF/ANSI 61 ensures that your product meets the regulatory requirements for the U.S. and Canada, and it can often meet or fulfill the testing requirements for many other countries as well. Market leaders strive to attain NSF certification as a mark of distinction that provides their customers with assurance that their product is safe for use in drinking water.

NSF/ANSI 61 testing covers all products with drinking water contact from source to tap, and determines what contaminants may migrate or leach from your product into drinking water. It also confirms if they are below the maximum levels allowed to be considered safe.

Certification also allows your company to:

  • List your product in our online directory of certified drinking water system components
  • Use the NSF certification mark on your products and in your promotional materials

Why Work With NSF?

The NSF mark, well respected by public health officials and drinking water utilities, is recognized as a symbol of product quality and integrity. Our responsive, personalized service quickly guides your products through the certification process, ensuring that they get to market on time and on budget. We offer product bracketing services wherever possible to help keep costs down, and we provide pricing up front so there are no hidden surprises down the road.

NSF is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) and NSF listings satisfy the requirements of the Canadian National Plumbing Code, U.S. Model Codes and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC).

Certification Process

We distinguish ourselves due to our thorough product evaluation, but our certification process is simple and efficient. We assign you a dedicated NSF project manager as a single point of contact to guide you through the certification process and oversee your certification project every step of the way.

Seven Simple Steps to Certification:

  1. Your company submits an application.
  2. You provide product formulation, toxicology and product use information.
  3. Our toxicology department reviews formulations.
  4. We perform a plant audit and sample collection.
  5. Our laboratory conducts testing.
  6. We complete a final toxicology evaluation.
  7. We grant NSF certification for compliant products and you can use the NSF mark on products, packaging and marketing materials.

Our experts can help you reduce overall costs and expedite your time to market by bundling services and reducing the number of contracted service providers and facility audits.

U.S. and Canadian Approvals

Drinking water system components that are used in centralized water treatment plants and water distribution systems up through the water meter are typically regulated by state or provincial drinking water agencies.

Forty-eight U.S. states have legislation, regulations or policies requiring drinking water system components to comply with, or be certified to, NSF/ANSI 61.

Eleven Canadian provinces/territories require drinking water system components to comply with the requirements of NSF/ANSI 61.

Get more information and see a comprehensive map of the U.S. states and Canadian provinces/territories that require NSF/ANSI 61.


For additional information, read these articles published in Precast Inc. by the Hill and Griffith Company:
  • "Biodegradability Redefined and Volatile Organic Compounds Update" by Bob Waterloo, Precast Inc.,
    January/February 2010
    Download Article »

  • Biodegradable, NSF Concrete Form Release Agents Offer a Range of Options for Concrete Applications
    Read More »

Precast Concrete News at NPCA, National Precast Concrete Association

Benchmarking Your Business

Advocating for Infrastructure

Personalize Your Member Experience


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete, Casting Solutions, Concrete Casting Products, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Casting, Precast Concrete, Concrete Form Release Agent, American Concrete Institute, NSF/ANSI 61 Potable Water

Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe & Concrete Steel Pressure Pipe, Review of AWWA Standard for Potable Water

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 24, 2019 10:06:05 PM

"The forms shall be cleaned thoroughly and coated with a form-release agent before each use."

Concrete Pressure Pipr 101

There are two types of prestressed concrete steel-cylinder pipe:

(1) the lined-cylinder type, with a core composed of a steel cylinder lined with concrete and subsequently wire-wrapped directly on the steel cylinder and coated with mortar; and

(2) the embedded-cylinder type, with a core composed of a steel cylinder encased in concrete and subsequently wire-wrapped on the exterior concrete surface and coated with cement mortar.

(Image from PUBLIC WORKS Magazine.)

I. Introduction

I.A. Background

 

The lined-cylinder type, which was first used in the United States in 1942, is furnished in sizes from 16 in. (410 mm) to 60 in. (1,520 mm). The embedded-cylinder type, which was developed later and first installed in 1953, is most commonly manufactured in sizes 48 in. (1,220 mm) and larger. Both types are designed for the specific combination of internal pressure and external load required for the project in accordance with the procedures outlined in ANSI/AWWA C304, Standard for Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe. Prestressed concrete steel-cylinder pipe is used for transmission mains, distribution feeder mains, pressure siphons (including river crossings), penstocks, industrial pressure lines, water intake lines, and other applications. In the manufacture of lined-cylinder pipe, the first step is to fabricate and hydrostatically test the steel cylinder with joint rings attached. The cylinder is then lined with concrete to form the core. The concrete is placed either centrifugally, by vertical casting, or by a radial compaction method. The concrete lining is cured and high-tensile wire is wrapped around the core directly on the steel cylinder. For a selected wire size, the tension and spacing of the wire are controlled to produce a predetermined residual compression in the core to meet design requirements. The wrapped core is then covered with a dense premixed mortar coating applied by a mechanical impact method. In the manufacture of embedded-cylinder pipe, the cylinder and joint rings are constructed and tested in the same manner as lined-cylinder pipe. The cylinder is encased in concrete by vertical casting and mechanical vibration to constitute the core. After curing, the wire reinforcement is wound under tension in one or more layers around the outside of the concrete core containing the cylinder, instead of directly on the cylinder. The exterior coating of premixed mortar is placed by impaction. 

Concrete Pressure Pipe Basics

(Image from PUBLIC WORKS Magazine.)

4.6.5 Concrete for pipe core.

4.6.5.1 General. The concrete in the cores may be placed by the centrifugal method, by the vertical casting method, or by other approved methods.

4.6.5.10 Placing concrete by vertical casting method. The concrete lining or core shall be cast on-end on a cast-iron or steel base ring with rigid steel collapsible forms for the concrete surfaces. The forms shall be designed to ensure that they will have smooth contact surfaces, tight joints, and that they will be firmly and accurately held in proper position without distortion during the placing of the concrete. The forms shall be designed to allow the pipe core to be removed without damaging the surfaces of the concrete. The forms shall be cleaned thoroughly and coated with a form-release agent before each use.

(Remember that any concrete form release used for potable water needs to be NSF approved, like Grifcote LV-50 Plus.)

The transporting and placing of concrete shall be carried out by methods that will not cause the separation of concrete materials or the displacement of the steel cylinder or forms from their proper positions. Adequate methods of mechanical vibration shall be used to compact the concrete in the forms and to ensure satisfactory surfaces. 


Precast Concrete In The Google and NPCA News:

Precast Products - National Precast Concrete Association

Precast Concrete Pipe - National Precast Concrete Association

Precast Concrete Pipe Durability - American Concrete Pipe Association


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors, NSF potable water concrete release agents and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

 

Tags: Concrete Form Release Agents, Concrete Release Agents, Concrete Forms, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Form Release, NSF Potable Water Concrete Release Agents, Grifcote LV-50 Plus, Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Concrete Steel Pressure Pipe, AWWA

Grifcote® and Cast-O-Magic® Concrete Form Release Agents

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 17, 2019 4:17:55 PM

The Perfect Release

VOC Compliant, NSF Certified* and Biodegradable Release Agents for All Concrete Applications

20190513 HG_1-2pgH_TPR copy

Industry Leading Performance and Quality

Trained technicians are available to visit your site, determine your needs and design the right product for you.

concrete_ties-1
Gricote FR-50 & PR-SS VOC - Workhorse Release


concrete_potable_water-tower-1
Grifcote LV-50 Plus - NSF Certified for Potable Water Release


concrete_bio_gold_form-1
Grifcote Bio-Gold - Environmentally Friendly Release


concrete_junction_form-1
Grifcote CC-150 VOC - Premium Seasoning Agent

form-release-agent-cast-o-magic-sizes-sq
Cast-O-Magic, Con-Solver and Liquid Chisel

consolver-concrete-dissolver-sq
Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Forms

Nationwide and International Distribution


Precast Concrete News From the National Precast Concrete Association

• NPCA President Search

• Benchmarking Your Business

• Advocating for Infrastructure


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands-on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete, Casting Solutions, Concrete Casting Products, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Casting, Precast Concrete, Concrete Form Release Agent

Grifcote® LV-50 Plus NSF Approved Potable Water Concrete Form Release Agent

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 10, 2019 4:58:27 PM

Potable Water Concrete Release Agent

Grifcote LV-50 Plus was created specifically for use with castings that would be exposed to potable water.

The material is NSF (ANSI 61) approved for use with potable water and some restrictions do apply in specific applications.

Low VOC and Biodegradable Release Agent

  • All Grifcote products are EPA VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) compliant with less than 250 grams per liter of VOCs. Grifcote is compliant in all 50 States and Canada.

  • All are classified as either readily biodegradable, with a half-life of 28 days or less or inherently biodegradable with a half-life of 60 days or less.

  • All products comply with federal or state regulations regarding concrete release agents.

  • "Biodegradability Redefined and Volatile Organic Compounds Update" by Bob Waterloo, Precast Inc.,
    January/February 2010
    Download Article »

  • Biodegradable, NSF Concrete Form Release Agents Offer a Range of Options for Concrete Applications
    Read More »

If you manufacture, sell or distribute water treatment or distribution products in North America, your products are required to comply with NSF/ANSI 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects by most governmental agencies that regulate drinking water supplies.

NSFANSI 61 and Your Concrete Release Agent Selection

The NSF mark, well respected by public health officials and drinking water utilities, is recognized as a symbol of product quality and integrity. Our responsive, personalized service quickly guides your products through the certification process, ensuring that they get to market on time and on budget. We offer product bracketing services wherever possible to help keep costs down, and we provide pricing up front so there are no hidden surprises down the road.

NSF is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) and NSF listings satisfy the requirements of the Canadian National Plumbing Code, U.S. Model Codes and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC).

U.S. and Canadian Approvals

Drinking water system components that are used in centralized water treatment plants and water distribution systems up through the water meter are typically regulated by state or provincial drinking water agencies.

Forty-eight U.S. states have legislation, regulations or policies requiring drinking water system components to comply with, or be certified to, NSF/ANSI 61.

Eleven Canadian provinces/territories require drinking water system components to comply with the requirements of NSF/ANSI 61.

Get more information and see a comprehensive map of the U.S. states and Canadian provinces/territories that require NSF/ANSI 61.


For additional information on the proper concrete release agent to use for concrete drinking water tanks, read these articles published in Precast Inc. by the Hill and Griffith Company:

Precast Concrete Water Tank posts by Hill and Griffith in Google

Why Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks Are The Best

NPCA extends product-specific certification to water, wastewater tanks 

Why Precast Concrete Cistern pH is Important


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete, Casting Solutions, Concrete Casting Products, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Casting, Precast Concrete, Concrete Form Release Agent, American Concrete Institute, NSF/ANSI 61 Potable Water, Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks

Article review, "The Effects of Concrete Release Agents on the Formwork/Concrete Interface"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 3, 2019 2:11:59 PM

Fédération Internationale du Béton Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress June 5-8, 2006 – Naples, Italy

Effects of Concrete Release Agents 1

INTRODUCTION

The role of demoulding oils is to prevent the concrete adhering to the steel walls [1]. Because of its extremely fine structure and high lubricity at the very beginning of casting, the cement paste contained in the concrete spreads over the formwork surface and builds up in the asperities. The adhesion of the oil is therefore an important parameter. Another feature of these oils is that they improve the appearance of the facings and the resistance to corrosion of the surfaces of the steel mould and formwork.

This article is by:

Libessart, L., Djelal, C.
Laboratoire d’Artois Mécanique Thermique et Instrumentation, Unviversité d’Artois, TechnoParc Futura – 62400 Béthune, France

De Caro, P.
Laboratoire de Chmie Agro-industriel, UMR1010, INA/INP, ENSIACET, 118 route de Narbonne – 31077 Toulouse Cedex

Dubois, I.
CHRYSO S.A., ZI - 7 rue de l’Europe – 45300 Sermaises

###

Highlights:

Currently the most popular demoulding oils are of mineral origin. However, these products are not very environmentally friendly and cause inconvenience to the users (skin and respiratory tract irritations, inhalation of volatile organic components). Prolonged exposure can inflict irreversible damage recognized as occupational diseases. To resolve these problems, vegetable-based formulations have been developed. A European study [2] was conducted in 1999 to make these agents better known in the building world (SUMOREVA project).

A lack of knowledge of the mechanisms acting at the concrete/wall interface, when demoulding agents are present, means that the formulation of these lubricants remains totally empirical. Manufacturers can but fall back on their experience and site tests which are restrictive and expensive, in order to establish a formulation which best meets users’ requirements.

The aim of this study is to link the physical-chemical properties of mineral or vegetable oil compositions to their mechanical properties when the concrete is laid. Keywords: concrete, release agents, interface, formwork

ESTABLISHING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OILS

The study was conducted on one formulation of mineral origin and one formulation of vegetable origin. The properties of the oils are given in Tab. 1:

The mineral composition comprises a mineral base of paraffin origin. The vegetable composition is formulated from a complex plant ester and an acidifier.

The acid index corresponds to the number of milligrams of potassium (KOH) required to neutralise a gram of oil. In our case, the acid index enables the content to be quantified in COOH carboxylic functions. These functions correspond to free acids, i.e. non saponified. The complex plant esters are prepared by sterification from a fatty acid of plant origin.

Effects of Concrete Release Agents 2

Tab. 1. Properties of the oils

The fatty acids (Fig.1) in contact with an alkaline hydroxide (in this case, lime) are transformed into alkaline carboxylates (soaps). They also catalyse the saponification reaction which generates soaps from an ester and an alkaline hydroxide. In this case, the soap obtained is a calcium salt 2(RCOO)Ca2+. A soap is formed from a long carbonated chain (R) and a carboxylate group (–COO-) called polar head.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OIL FILM

The demoulding agent must be chosen in relation to the nature of the formwork and the period of use [4], but it is mainly the conditions of application which are the determining factor. Each time a demoulding agent is used, the formwork surfaces must first be thoroughly cleaned. In addition, the demoulding agent must be applied in a fine and continuous film. It is imperative for the demoulding product to cling to the formwork because if it rides up with the concrete during filling, it may cause flaws and air bubbles. A study conducted by a North American demoulding manufacturer shows that the thicker the oil, the more the surface quality of the concrete deteriorates. According to this study, the best results are obtained with a thickness of 10 μm [5].
 
The optimum quantities for mineral-based oils vary from 0.12 to 0.15 litre per m2 [6] and are about 5 to 10 times lower for vegetable-based oils [7]. This is explained by the fact that in the case of vegetable-based oils, the thinner the film, the better it is organized, and consequently its effectiveness is improved. Excessive oil disorganizes the film and impairs its effectiveness.
 
The most suitable application method is spraying, in some cases together with spreading by rubber scraper to remove the excess oil from the single layer.
 
The quality of the oil film was evaluated on the basis of wettability and under an optical microscope.
 
CONCLUSION
 
The mineral oil studied has low viscosity and a good rheological resistance to temperature variations. Moreover, it also has high wettability. Despite these favorable characteristics, more oil has to be sprayed to obtain an even film on the formwork surface. Vegetable oil has a higher viscosity and lower wettability than mineral oil. In addition, at temperatures of below 20°C, its viscosity increases considerably, and this change is detrimental to the application of the oil under winter conditions. On the other hand, its film offers a homogeneous appearance for a small volume of sprayed oil. The friction of the concrete on the formwork is also reduced for vegetable oil because of an organized soap/oil structure at the interface. It is a combination between a chemical effect (saponification reaction) and a physical effect (thickness of the film) which leads to a significant reduction in the friction stresses.
 

ABSTRACT

Release agents are significant source of pollution in the construction and prefabrication industries. Conventional product are known to be toxic for humans and the environment. New formulations based on vegetable esters have appeared on the market to mitigate against this drawback, but more knowledge must be required about the properties and behaviour of these products, and their industry profile is raised. Understanding the phenomena that occur over formwork-oil-concrete interface is a real challenge. This paper begins with a physicochemical survey of release agents by defining the formwork-oil and oil-concrete interfaces. In then characterizes the formwork-oil-concrete interfaces by dynamic studies (tribometer). Physicochemical mechanisms are proposed.


Precast Structural Concrete Reports from International Federation for Structural Concrete

Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Practical Design of Structural Concrete

Design of Post-Tensioned Slabs and Foundations


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

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 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete, Casting Solutions, Concrete Casting Products, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Casting, Precast Concrete, Concrete Form Release Agent, International Federation for Structural Concrete

Why Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks Are The Best

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 25, 2019 4:55:38 PM

Why you should only use a concrete tank to store drinking water

Any water that is stationary will eventually become stagnant and undrinkable. How water is stored and its temperature will determine how long the water stays healthy and drinkable. Spring water is often considered as the best water you can drink, store your water in an underground concrete tank and you are producing your own spring water.

Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks
Image from Colorado Precast Concrete.

Why tank water is so acidic

Underground concrete tanks is normally roof harvested rain water, which is naturally acidic. The acidity of normal rain is attributed mainly to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which gets absorbed as water condenses from a gas to a liquid and it is these liquid droplets that forms clouds and eventually rain. Even in areas that are minimally affected by human pollution, the pH of rain water can range from 4.5 to 5.0 which is fairly acidic.

In built-up areas around cities, above normal acid rain is generally caused by human pollution and in highly polluted cities rain water can become as acidic as lemon juice which causes lots of problems for old historic buildings.

This acidity forms part of the natural process that allows rain water, with the help of microbes found in the soil, to dissolve minerals from the soil into a colloidal form that now makes the water neutral and full of minerals which can then be taken up by plants. Acidic water is however not choosy and will happily do the same thing in the human body. Resulting in the stealing of alkalizing minerals and therefore a net loss of these vital minerals from the body as the water attempts to achieve a more neutral pH balance.

Precast Concrete Potable Water Tanks

Why is concrete the best material to store water in

The very nature of water itself is that it wants to balance out to a neutral pH. and a concrete tank is the only man made storage system that will allow this to happen. To neutralize itself, water will absorb some of the minerals out of the concrete and will generally settle in a slightly alkaline state.

An in-ground concrete water tank will keep the water at the temperature that it fell out of the sky at and if you are in an area that gets mostly winter rain, that cold water will remain cold all summer.

Even above ground, light cannot penetrate through the concrete walls of a concrete and into the water.

All of this become very important, because roof harvested rain water picks up all sorts of dust, bacteria, and bugs and even after being pre-filtered some always gets through.

Water that is alkaline, cold and removed from light will not support the growth of any bacteria that makes its way into your tank, thus allowing this water to stay clean and drinkable for years.

If you cannot put your tank underground, paint it white; or allow ivy to cover it to keep the sun off it and the water will stay very cold.

Yes in time, this leaching of minerals will compromise the integrity of a concrete tank, but a well-made tank is good for a hundred odd years.

(Thanks to Versatile Tanks for this article)


If you manufacture, sell or distribute water treatment or distribution products in North America, your products are required to comply with NSF/ANSI 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects by most governmental agencies that regulate drinking water supplies.

NSFANSI 61 and Your Concrete Release Agent Selection

The NSF mark, well respected by public health officials and drinking water utilities, is recognized as a symbol of product quality and integrity. Our responsive, personalized service quickly guides your products through the certification process, ensuring that they get to market on time and on budget. We offer product bracketing services wherever possible to help keep costs down, and we provide pricing up front so there are no hidden surprises down the road.

NSF is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) and NSF listings satisfy the requirements of the Canadian National Plumbing Code, U.S. Model Codes and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC).

U.S. and Canadian Approvals

Drinking water system components that are used in centralized water treatment plants and water distribution systems up through the water meter are typically regulated by state or provincial drinking water agencies.

Forty-eight U.S. states have legislation, regulations or policies requiring drinking water system components to comply with, or be certified to, NSF/ANSI 61.

Eleven Canadian provinces/territories require drinking water system components to comply with the requirements of NSF/ANSI 61.

Get more information and see a comprehensive map of the U.S. states and Canadian provinces/territories that require NSF/ANSI 61.


For additional information on the proper concrete release agent to use for concrete drinking water tanks, read these articles published in Precast Inc. by the Hill and Griffith Company:

Precast Concrete Water Tank posts by Hill and Griffith in Google

Why Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks Are The Best

NPCA extends product-specific certification to water, wastewater tanks 

Why Precast Concrete Cistern pH is Important


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water concrete form release, non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable concrete form release, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

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On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
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 Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products

Tags: Concrete, Casting Solutions, Concrete Casting Products, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Casting, Precast Concrete, Concrete Form Release Agent, American Concrete Institute, NSF/ANSI 61 Potable Water, Precast Concrete Drinking Water Tanks

ACPA Education Review: "Concrete Pipe – Pre & Post Pour Inspections"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 18, 2019 3:21:42 PM

The American Concrete Pipe Association's PPT, "Pre & Post Pour Inspections" contains information on Documentation, Pre-Pour Inspection of Equipment & Reinforcement, and Post-Pour Inspection of Stripping, Handling, Visual & Dimensions 

This is an excellent presentation of all the steps involved in producing high-quality concrete pipe. 

Concrete Pipe Pre Pour Documentation
Go to this link to download the PowerPoint.

Download a PDF.


Concrete Pipe Pre Pour Form Release

Concrete Pipe Manufacturing Pre-Pour Inspection - Form Release: Application methods, brush, spray; How much is enough??, Too Little, Too Much, Affects concrete finish, may affect curing

 

Concrete Pipe Pre Pour Barrier Form Release

Concrete Pipe Manufacturing Pre-Pour Inspection - Form Release: Barrier (non-reactive); Examples, Petroleum-based diesel, heating oils, used crankcase oil;

Advantages, Creates a physical barrier between form and fresh concrete;

Disadvantages, Need heavy application for easy release (200-400 ft2/gal), Can cause staining and bugholes, May not meet VOC requirements, Can cause buildup on forms

Concrete Pipe Pre Pour Chemically Reactive Form Release

Concrete Pipe Manufacturing Pre-Pour Inspection - Form Release: Chemically Reactive; Examples, Fatty acids (vegetable and mineral oils) are chemically reactive agents that combine with calcium in fresh cement paste to produce a soap-like film between the concrete and the form;

Advantages, Prevents bonding of concrete to form, Ultra-thin Layer (Approximately 0.005”), Reduce bugholes, stains, dusting, Typically meets VOC requirements (verify)

Disadvantages, Typically more costly per gallon

Concrete Pipe Pre Pour Seasoning

Concrete Pipe Manufacturing Pre-Pour Inspection - Seasoning

1. Remove protective coating to prevent staining, sticking, poor finish

  • Wear off during production
  • Solvents
  • Grind
  • Blast

2. Apply high fatty acid concentrate release agent; Let it react (forms metallic soap barrier). If using a barrier agent, use it for seasoning.

3. Ideally allow 24-hr sit-time

4. Apply release agent

5. Put into use

Concrete Pipe Post Pour Bug Holes

The American Concrete Pipe Association was originally conceived in 1907 by a small group of concrete farm drain tile manufacturers as the Interstate Cement Tile Manufacturers Association in Ames, Iowa.

The group needed some means of exchanging ideas and establishing a high quality, standardized products. In 1914, the organization was renamed the American Concrete Pipe Association. Throughout the 20th century, the concrete pipe industry has experienced tremendous growth. As more and more people moved from farms to cities, it created increased demand for concrete sewer and drainage products. The introduction of the automobile and subsequent highway development extended the uses of concrete pipe storm drains and culverts. There are currently over 400 plants operated by ACPA members in the United States and Canada. Over 40 countries are represented in the membership of the American Concrete Pipe Association. ACPA’s international headquarters are located in Irving, Texas USA.


Precast Concrete Manufacturing Resources from the American Concrete Pipe Association

14 Reasons to Choose Concrete Pipe

Concrete Pipe Design Manual

Concrete Pipe Specifications


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands-on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water and non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable releases, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products 

Tags: Concrete Form Release Agents, Concrete Release Agents, Concrete Forms, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Form Release, American Concrete Pipe Association

Article Review: "Concrete Pipe – Health and Safety  in Severe Weather Conditions"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 11, 2019 4:48:45 PM

After more than 175 years, concrete pipe continues to be a product of choice for specifiers, contractors, and design engineers.

Throughout its 111-year history, the American Concrete Pipe Association and its members have met the demands of infrastructure owners while improving the quality and performance of concrete drainage and collection systems through advancements in product design, plant production, and concrete mixes. Contemporary de-signs of production plants in automated and robotic facilities ensure quality of products, health and safety, especially built to overcome severe weather conditions.

Concrete Pipe Health & Safety

 

Article by Russell Tripp, P.E., President, American Concrete Pipe Association, USA, and published in CPI - Concrete Plant international May 2018. To read the entire article go to the introductory page at American Concrete Pipe Association's web site.

The U.S. has sustained 230 weather and climate disasters since 1980 where overall damages/costs reached or exceeded $1 billion (including Consumer Price Index adjustment to 2018). The total cost of these 230 events exceeded $1.5 trillion (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions). As of April 6, 2018, there have been 3 weather and climate disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion each across the United States. [1]  The California wildfires, which burned more than 9.8 million acres in 2017, destroyed over 15,000 homes and businesses, caused 44 deaths, and racked up a cost of $18 billion. [2] 

Following disaster events, news reports documented pipeline systems and culverts that were irreparably damaged. Failed thermoplastic or corrugated metal drainage systems, from the wild fires in California to the hurricane damage in Texas and Florida, were identified as the primary cause of many road failures.

Unlike concrete, thermoplastic pipes will melt and burn. Based on recent fires in California, damage to a thermoplastic drainage system has extended far beyond the damaged pipe itself to include sidewalks, roadway, gas/oil pipelines, drinking water systems and nearby structures. Thermoplastic pipe materials installed close to the surface or where there is an ex-posed pipeline inlet or outlet run the risk of being damaged or destroyed by fire regardless of the use of special end treatments. Fires in concrete pipeline systems generally don’t affect structural strength or flow capacity; the two fundamental requirements of a gravity pipeline drainage or collection system. The repair or replacement of infrastructure is incredibly expensive, and the community impacts include the interruption of service, localize flooding and damaged roadways that severely disrupt traffic based on damaged thermoplastic or metal pipelines found in, or adjacent to road rights of way. Thermoplastic pipe culvert failures have been documented recently where access by emergency service vehicles were blocked resulting in loss of property and more threats to health and safety.

Concrete Pipe Advantages
Before and after burn. Using the QR-Code you can see the ACPA Comparative Flammability Demonstration October 21, 2015 on www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoXuyWnaJm4

Concrete pipe production facilities produce one of the world’s most enduring products for storm drainage and sewage collection systems. The long-lasting performance of precast concrete pipe and box drainage systems is well documented in severe weather conditions. Compared to thermo-plastic drainage systems, concrete pipe has always been and will continue to be rigid, rugged, and resilient.

Russell Tripp, P.E., Clemson University alumnus, earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering in 1982. He spent the first 21 years of his professional career working in the natural gas industry. He then served three years in the PVC sheet pile industry and four years in the plastic drainage industry before joining the ACPA.


 

Precast Concrete Manufacturing Resources from the American Concrete Pipe Association

14 Reasons to Choose Concrete Pipe

Concrete Pipe Design Manual

Concrete Pipe Specifications


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands-on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water and non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable releases, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products 

Tags: Concrete Form Release Agents, Concrete Release Agents, Concrete Forms, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Form Release, American Concrete Pipe Association

Quality Control and Testing of Concrete Pipe

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 4, 2019 3:26:47 PM

The American Concrete Pipe Association is the spokesperson for the concrete pipe industry in all matters affecting the industry’s welfare.

We researched their content and found some great free resources. Their home page section on "Pipe & Box Resources" starts off with Design and "14 Reasons to Choose Concrete."

Precast Concrete Pipe Design Manual

"Concrete is the world’s most commonly used building material.

In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates. The material (paste) used to manufacture concrete pipe is composed principally of Portland cement and water, and is used to coat the surface of the fine and coarse aggregates. The Portland cement is a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other compounds, to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regulate the setting time of the concrete. Portland cement’s chemistry comes to life in the presence of water. Soon after the cement and water are combined, a chemical reaction called hydration occurs and the paste hardens and gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete. During hydration, a node forms on the surface of each cement particle. The node grows and expands until it links up with nodes from other cement particles or adheres to adjacent aggregates. Within this process lies the key to the remarkable trait of concrete – it’s plastic and malleable when newly mixed and strong and durable when hardened. ..."

The 14th Reason is "Quality Control and Testing of Concrete Pipe."

Batching and mixing operations in the industry’s premier plants have been upgraded over the past 10 years. Characteristics of this operation of the pipe production process normally include:
• Computer controlled weighing and proportioning systems
• Computer controlled mixing systems
• Automated recording systems
• Absorption testing

Concrete PipePlant Certification

The American Concrete Pipe Association offers an on-going quality assurance program called the “Quality Cast” Plant Certification Program. (http://www.concrete-pipe.org/qcast.htm). This 124-point audit-inspection program covers the inspection of materials, finished products and handling/storage procedures, as well as performance testing and quality control documentation. Plants are certified to provide storm sewer and culvert pipe or under a combined sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and culvert pipe program.

Line Item 6.1 "Forms shall be kept clean of concrete build-up and inspected after each use."

Line Item 8.2. "Pre-Pour Visual Inspection"
For each pipe produced, visually inspect the following applicable items prior to pouring:
• Reinforcing Placement
• Handling Holes / Lifting Devices
• Tie-pin Holes
• Release Agent Application
• Form Cleanliness and Condition
• Step Holes / Plugs 

American Concrete Pipe Association

Brief History of the ACPA

The American Concrete Pipe Association was originally conceived in 1907 by a small group of concrete farm drain tile manufacturers as the Interstate Cement Tile Manufacturers Association in Ames, Iowa. The group needed some means of exchanging ideas and establishing a high quality, standardized products. In 1914, the organization was renamed the American Concrete Pipe Association. Throughout the 20th century, the concrete pipe industry has experienced tremendous growth. As more and more people moved from farms to cities, it created increased demand for concrete sewer and drainage products. The introduction of the automobile and subsequent highway development extended the uses of concrete pipe storm drains and culverts. There are currently over 400 plants operated by ACPA members in the United States and Canada. Over 40 countries are represented in the membership of the American Concrete Pipe Association. ACPA’s international headquarters are located in Irving, Texas USA.


Precast Concrete News from the American Concrete Pipe Association

2018 Camp Fire — Reminder of Need for Fire-Resilient Infrastructure

Reinforced Concrete Pipe Replaces 20-Year Old Plastic System in Florida

Become a member of ACPA by completing a membership application


Hill and Griffith Customer Service

We're known for our hands-on approach. Let us visit your plant and recommend concrete release agents, packerhead concrete form releases, concrete form seasoning, potable water and non-petroleum concrete form release, biodegradable releases, rust inhibitors and concrete dissolver products that suit your needs.

Hill and Griffith Samples

Product Samples

We are pleased to provide samples in quantities large enough to allow you to "try before you buy."
Contact Us »

 

Hill and Griffith Customer Service

Technical Services & Support

On-site casting defect investigations, product testing, machine start-ups and much more. Also, lab facilities are available to provide testing upon request.
Contact Us »

 

Bulletins and Technical Papers for Concrete Casting Products 

Tags: Concrete Form Release Agents, Concrete Release Agents, Concrete Forms, Concrete Casting Supplies, Concrete Form Release, American Concrete Pipe Association

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