Excerpt from the August 2015 article from the International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology by A. Advekar, Y. Arunkumar, and M.S. Srinath
High-pressure die-casting (HPDC) process is widely used to manufacture a large variety of products with high dimensional accuracy and productivities. It has a much faster production rate in comparison to other methods and it is an economical and efficient method for producing components with low surface roughness and high-dimensional accuracy. All major aluminum automotive components can be processed with this technology. In this process, the metal is injected into the die at high speeds (30–100 m/s and typically 40–60 m/s for aluminum alloys) and under high pressure through complex gate and runner systems.
The mechanical properties of a die-cast product are principally related to the die temperature, the metal velocity at the gate, and the applied casting pressure. Die casting is a manufacturing process that produces geometrically complex metal parts through reusable molds, called dies. The die casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, die casting machine, and die. The metal, typically a non-ferrous alloy such as aluminum or zinc, is melted in the furnace and then injected into the dies in the die casting machine. There are two main types of die casting machines - hot chamber machines (used for alloys with low melting temperatures, such as zinc) and cold chamber machines (used for alloys with high melting temperatures, such as aluminum). The differences between these machines will be detailed in the sections on equipment and tooling. However, in both machines, after the molten metal is injected into the dies, it rapidly cools and solidifies into the final part, called the casting.Read More