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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Three Types of Casting Sand

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 15, 2020 5:34:16 PM

Excerpt from an article from TheMetalCasting.com 

There is no substitute for good, fine casting sand for metal casting. The experiments with the use of common foundry sand proved to be completely disappointing for packing and retaining its shape when dry. Casting of sand is the simplest and most versatile of all casting methods used to produce castings. There are various types of sand used in casting. These different types of casting sand have their own advantages and disadvantages. The type of metal required to be cast influences which additives and what gradation of sand is used.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, TheMetalCasting.com

Sustainability Gets the Green Light

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 1, 2020 4:25:36 PM

The metalcasting industry sees itself as a leader in recycling. But when it comes to engaging local government, communities and customers, metalcasters can improve their message of waste reduction and beneficial use. 

Excerpt from the article in the June 2014 issue of Modern Casting by Nicholas Leider.

Many in the metalcasting industry refer to themselves as "the world's original recycler." The saying is perfect for a bumper sticker, but metalcasters have a problem when it comes to a deeper discussion of environmentally sustainable practices. The industry is conscious of reducing wastes, reducing costs and fulfilling a vital role in industrial sustainability, but such efforts often fall on deaf ears of local communities, government officials and customers.

Because a reduction in waste or decrease in consumption is financially beneficial does not make it any less environmentally friendly. Metalcasters need to be aware that successfully implementing sustainability programs can make economic sense and also improve relations with their neighbors. Fortunately, metalcasting has a number of inherent positives in regards to sustainability, which is a great way to begin a conversation on the topic of going green.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Modern Casting Magazine

A Study of Cores Types for the Casting Process

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 25, 2020 5:04:26 PM

Excerpt from the article in the March 2015 issue of International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science by Dhairya S. Deore, et. al.

Casting is the process of producing metal/allo y component parts of desired shapes by pouring the molte n metal/alloy into a prepared mold (of that shape) and then allo wing the metal/alloy to cool and solidify. The solidified p iece of metal/alloy is known as casting. To enhance the casting process, we must improve the quality of sand. Sand muller improves this quality. A core is essentially a body of materials which forms
components of the mold. It possesses sufficient strength to be handled as an independent unit.
 
A core is an obstruction, which when positioned in the mold, naturally does not permit the molten metal to fill up the space occupied by the core. In t his way a core produces a ho llow casting. Cores are required to crea te the recesses, undercuts and interior cavities that are often a part of castings. Cores are employed as inserts in a mold to form design features that are otherwise extremely difficult to p roduce by simple molding. The dry silica sand is used a s a basic refractor y material for prep aring core. This sand withstands high temperature of metal poured in the mold.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Determining the Essential Qualities of Green Sand: 6 Tests

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 18, 2020 1:44:52 PM

Excerpt from the article on EngineeringNotes.com

The following points highlight the six main tests to determine the essential qualities of sand. The tests are:

  • Grain Fineness Test
  • Permeability Test
  • Sand Mold Strength Test
  • Moisture Content Test
  • Clay Content Test
  • Hardness Test

1. Grain Fineness Test:

Granular particles of various sizes and shapes provide variable interstices (space between grains) and hence, are directly responsible for permeability and compactness of the sand. Granular particles have higher strength but lower permeability, whereas round grains have high permeability and lower strength.

To carry out this test, a sample of dry sand weighing 50 grams, free from clay is placed on the topmost sieve bearing U.S. series equivalent number 6. A set of standard testing sieves having U.S. Bureau of Standard Meshes 6, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, 100, 140, 200 and 270 are mounted on a mechanical shaker. The above sample shakes for about 15 minutes. After this, weight of the sand retained on each sieve can be obtained.

To obtain the grain-fineness, weight of the sand retained by each sieve is multiplied by 2, which gives the percentage of weight retained by each sieve.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Green Sand Casting: Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Manufacturing Techniques

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 11, 2020 2:07:57 PM

Excerpt from Casting Practice: The Ten Rules of Casting by Stephanie Dalquist

2. System Boundaries: Process Materials and Energy Use

The manufacturing process (Figure 2) begins with the formation of a single-use mold from sand and binders, which hold the sand mold together. A lot of the sand comes from the sand reclamation process, where sand from previous molds gets reclaimed for use in new molds. Cores are also made at this point for parts that have internal cavities.

In the green sand casting process, molds are made from a mixture of sand, clay, water, and carbonaceous additives (e.g. bituminous seacoal, anthracite, or ground coke). About 85% of the mold (EPA, 1998), by mass, is sand. The clay (4 to 10%) and water (2 to 5%) act as the binder system from which the mixture derives its strength. Although the carbonaceous additives are a very small component by mass, they are needed to prevent the metal from oxidizing as it solidifies. They burn off on contact with the molten metal, creating an assortment of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Avoid Core Blows in Green Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 4, 2020 8:37:55 PM

Excerpt from the instructional book, Casting Practice: The Ten Rules of Casting.

Rule 5: Avoid core blows

5.1 Background

When sand cores are surrounded by liquid metal, the heating of the sand and its binder causes large volumes of gas to be generated in the core. Normally, the core will be designed so that the gas can escape through the core prints and so be dissipated in the mold. In this way, we hope that the pressure inside the core is prevented from rising to high levels. In some circumstances, however, the pressure of gas in the cores may rise to such a level that a bubble is forced out into the melt. It is blown into existence. Blow defect is therefore a good name for this type of gas pore. Bubbles formed in this way are of large size, and so, highly buoyant. They rise through the metal leaving oxidized bubble trails in their wakes.
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Optimization in Green Sand Casting Process for Efficient, Economical and Quality Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 28, 2020 6:30:15 PM

Excerpt from the January-March 2014 International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology article by Raghwendra Banchhor, S.K. Ganguly.

Among the industrial activities, sand casting remains one of the most complex and indefinite processes. Due to the specific relationship between casting defects and green sand properties, it is imperative to control many green sand characteristics that influence casting quality. The traditional trial-and-error method based on know-how and experience has many disadvantages. These include being nonsystematic, time-consuming, error-prone, and require long durations of experimentation. There is a need to replace this traditional approach to produce higher quality casting products within reasonable periods making better use of statistics, artificial intelligence knowledge acquisition neural networks, and data mining tools.

This paper extensively reviews published research on the green sand casting process. The riser design, gating system, molding sand, oxidation and deformation of casting during heat treatment, and machining allowance effects on the economical manufacturing of quality castings were reviewed. Determining the optimal process parameter setting will significantly improve the mold yield, output ratio of metal, shorten manufacturing period, save energy and resource, reduce pollution, and improve competitiveness.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

Leave Coremaking to the Experts

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 21, 2020 4:16:58 PM

Excerpt from the January 2013 Foundry Management & Technology article.

"Core cost averaging" and allowing foundries to do what they do best

Many foundries believe that they can produce cores merely for the price of sand and resin. That would be an ideal way for any business to operate, but the truth is that coremaking expertise carries a cost. At Humtown Products we have spent hundreds of hours calculating costs and striving to become the most efficient core room in the country, which now allows us to deliver quality cores across the country, on time, every time.

To foundries that believe buying cores from expert suppliers is too expensive we reply, "core cost averaging." If your foundry is falling behind on coremaking efficiency and you fear losing a customer, try this: Build us a box. Let us run some of the cores, and your core room can run as many as possible. This will allow you to ship the order and lower the average cost of cores. Foundries are in the business to pour metal, and no molding lines should be idled because there are no 'affordable' cores ready to set.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Metal Casting Process

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 14, 2020 4:01:35 PM

Excerpt from the September 2019 TheLibraryofManufacturing.com article.

Basics: Molds, Patterns, Cores and Gating 

A mold is formed into the geometric shape of a desired part. Then, molten metal is poured into the mold, which holds this material in shape as it solidifies. A metal casting is created. Although this seems rather simple, the manufacturing process of metal casting is both a science and an art. Let's begin our study of metal casting with the mold. First, molds can be classified as either open or closed. An open mold is a container, like a cup, that has only the shape of the desired part. The molten material is poured directly into the mold cavity, which is exposed to the open environment.

This type of mold is rarely used in manufacturing production, particularly for metal castings of any level of quality. The other type of mold is a closed mold. Closed molds contain a delivery system for the molten material to reach the mold cavity, where the part will harden within the mold. A very simple closed mold is shown in figure 2. The closed mold is, by far, more important in manufacturing metal casting operations.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 7, 2020 5:34:52 PM

Excerpt from the September 2019 TheLibraryofManufacturing.com article.

Metalcasting Sand

Sand casting is the most widely used metal casting process in manufacturing. Almost all casting metals can be sand cast. Sand castings can range in size from very small to extremely large. Some examples of items manufactured in modern industry by sand casting processes are engine blocks, machine tool bases, cylinder heads, pump housings, and valves, just to name a few.

Sand

Most sand casting operations use silica sand (SiO2). A great advantage of sand in manufacturing applications is that sand is inexpensive. Another advantage of sand to manufacture products by metal casting processes, is that sand is very resistant to elevated temperatures. In fact, sand casting is one of the few processes that can be used for metals with high melting temperatures such as steels, nickel, and titanium. Usually sand used to manufacture a mold for the casting process is held together by a mixture of water and clay. A typical mixture by volume could be 89% sand, 4% water, 7% clay. Control of all aspects of the properties of sand is crucial when manufacturing parts by sand casting, therefore a sand laboratory is usually attached to the foundry.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

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