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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

"O" - Glossary of Foundry Additives (including Core Oils )

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 30, 2018 3:32:49 PM

O - Foundry Additives Glossary

OAT FLOUR (See: CEREAL)
Although oat flour is used in the foundry in core and molding sand mixtures it is used sparingly. Corn flour, gelatinized, is generally preferred. Oat flour doesn't give the deformation and strengths in sand mixtures as does corn flour cereal.

OHIO FIRE CLAY (See: FIRECLAY)
Is a plastic fireclay bond which is a sedimentary clay deposit. They are coal measure clays. The Ohio fireclays that are used for bonding purposes are refractory. When finely ground they are called "bonding clays"; when more coarsely prepared, they are said to be "refractory clays," for use in ladles, furnaces, and other such mix­tures.

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OIL ASPHALT (See: ASPHALT-GILSONITE-PITCH-TAR)
This is a heavy black residue after removing the tar tailings in the distillation of petroleum. Its viscosity depends on the amount of distillate removed from the crude oil. It usually contains more than 99% bitumen and less than 0.4% mineral matter. Oil asphalt is not affected by water and does not decay readily. It has been called "asphalt oil" and the foundry has used these oil asphalts as "asphal­tum" under several brand names with fair, good, and poor results. It is used as a substitute for seacoals, pitch, and other carbonaceous materials used as facing compounds and additives in the foundry.

OILS (See: BINDERS-CORE BINDERS-CORE OILS-FISH OILS-FUEL OIL-LINSEED OIL-MINERAL OILS-PETRO­LEUM-VEGETABLE OILS) 
This is a large group of fatty substances which are generally divided into three foundry groups or classes called "vegetable oils," "animal oils," and "mineral oils." The vegetable oils are either fixed or volatile oils. The fixed oils are largely glycerides of stearic, oleic, palmitic, and other acids. The consistency varies from light fluid to solid fats. They nearly all boil between 500°F. to 600°F. (260°C. to 316°C). They decompose into other compounds. The volatile is sometimes known as "essential oil" and passes distillation without chemical change. Foundry oils are also derived from plants and seeds, such as linseed oil. Oils are mostly soluble in ether, benzol or alcohol. Oils are all found in most animal and fish bodies. Fish oils are thick and have a strong odor. Both vegetable and animal oils are obtained by pressing, extracting, or distilling the fats. Oils that absorb oxygen easily and become thick are known as drying oils and are valuable for core oil ingredients since they form a hard, elastic, waterproof film when oxidized. Oils and fats are distinguished by consistency only. Waxes are not oils and upon processing produce alcohol and fatty oils instead of glycerine. Mineral oils are those derived from shales, minerals, rocks, and petroleums.

OIL SHALE (See: FUEL OILS) OLEIC ACID (See: OILS)
It is also called "Red Oil" and "Elaine Oil." Oleic acid is an organic acid having a complexed chemical composition represented by the formula, CH3[(CH2)7CHJiCOOH. Oleic acid is found in: most fats in combination with glycerol particularly in liquid fats and oils such as olive oil, oleo oil, cottonseed oil, and coconut oil. It is separated from fats by saponification. It is obtained by distillation. The specific gravity is 0.89. It boils at 429°F. (222°C.). Commercial grades are sold as "saponified" and "distilled red oil." They are used in foundry compounds and liquids.

OLEO RESINOUS BINDER
Is a pharmaceutical term denoting an essential oil dissolved in a resin. Normally, it results from the solvent extraction of an essential oil from a resinous, pitchy plant structure. 

OLIVINE SAND AND FLOUR (See: MINERAL FLOUR)
Olivine is usually an olive green colored mineral called an orthosilicate of magnesium and iron. It is composed of various ratios of forsterite and fayalite. When crushed, screened, and sized, it is used as a foundry sand and when it is ground into a flour passing a No. 100 U. S. Standard Sieve, it may be used as an additive for fines to molding or core sand mixtures.

ORGANIC BINDERS (See: BINDERS-CORE BINDERS-SOLID ORGANIC BINDER)

OXYCHLORIDE
Is a misnomer applied to compounds containing chlorine and oxygen. It is generally used to define "High Test" hypochlorites which are increased in bleaching power by dissolving chlorine gas in a cold solution of a hypochlorite, such as calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. It is used in the foundry to help oxidize certain commercial coatings, sprays, oils, bonds, and washes.

OXYGEN CURED OR SETTING BINDERS (See: BINDERS-CORE OIL-RESINS)
Core oils and binders which depend upon oxygen and oxidation for curing and polymerization are referred to as "oxygen cured binders." Some resin binder systems are also dependent upon oxygen to complete their curing but they are not always termed "oxygen cured binders."

OXYGEN CURING OILS (See: SELF CURING BINDERS)

OXYGEN OIL SYSTEM (See: OXYGEN CURED BINDERS)

OXYGEN SETTING OILS (See: OXYGEN CURED BINDERS)
A reactive drying oil, mixed with metallic salts and an oxidizing agent such as sodium perborate.

Review of "Glossary of Foundry Additives" by Clyde A. Sanders, American Colloid Company


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