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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

"E" - Glossary of Foundry Additives including Ethylene Glycol

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 23, 2018 12:51:36 PM

E - Foundry Additives Glossary

This term is commonly applied to substances which conduct elec­tricity by transfer of ions either in the molten state or in solution. The term is not applied to metals in elementary form. The term, "electro­lyte" is generally applied to the conducting solution itself. The most important electrolytes are the solutions of salts, acids or bases usually dispersed or suspended in water. 

A colloidal system whereby a drying oil is intimately combined with water by means of an alkali-metal-soap as the emulsifying agent. Some core oils are emulsified for foundry use.


Is composed of glycerine and rosin and used in core binders, mold and core coatings.



Ethyl alcohol is often called "plain alcohol" or "industrial alco­hol." It is colorless liquid and its chemical formula is [CH3CHPH­(C2H5ON) J. Its specific gravity is 0.79. It mixes well with water in all proportions and absorbs moisture from the air. Ethyl alcohol boils at 173.8°F. (78.5°C.). It burns and the ignition temperature is about 965°F. (518°C.) in air at atmospheric pressure. It is a common beverage alcohol that is generally too expensive for use in the foundry since other alcohols are less expensive and have lesser appeal to con­sumption physically by employees. Ethyl alcohol is a good solvent and dissolves many and most organic substances such as resins, gums, and oils. In some foundry circles these compounds are called "es­sences." Ethyl alcohol is classified as a poison when denatured for non-beverage purposes. Ethyl alcohol is made synthetically under the name, "Ethanol" and is produced inexpensively by the fermentation of sugars, grains, and starches. "Absolute Alcohol" is free from water and "high purity" or "grain alcohol" contains about 95% by volume. Alcohol is sold by the "proof gallon," a "100% proof" contains 50% alcohol by volume. Denatured ethyl alcohol made unsuitable for bev­erage use is marketed under a variety of trade names. A foundry substitute for ethyl alcohol for solvent purposes in particularly mold washes, coatings and refractory light-off sprays is "lsopropanol," or "lsopropyl Alcohol" with a chemical composition [ (CH3) 2CHOH]. Its boiling point is 179.6°F. (82°C.). A mixture of: 12 parts by volume lsopropyl Alcohol, 1 part of phenol resin ( Colloidrez 7104), and 5 parts by volume of a refractory mineral such as Klean Surf iron oxide is an excellent spray for molds, cores, and refractories in the foundry.

Also known as "Ethocel." It is obtained by treatment of wood or cotton cellulose with alkali and ethylation with ethyl chloride. It contains in a normal commercial form 43% to 50% ethoxyl content and is soluble in organic solvents.

Is also known as "ethylene alcohol" and "glycol." Its chemical composition is [CH2OHCH2OH]. It is an "anti-freeze" and has a very low freezing point. It has an advantage over alcohol in that it does not boil or evaporate easily. Its boiling point is 389°F. (197° C.). Its specific gravity is 1.125. One of the trade names of ethylene glycol is "Prestone." It is used in magnesium foundry sand mixtures as a lubricant instead of using temper water, or as a diluent to temper water, if used. And it minimizes the burning of magnesium metal and its alloys when it is cast against the molding sand. Ethylene gylcol is also used in many sand mixtures for other metals cast during the winter season to prevent freezing of molding sands in the storage areas of the foundry. Glycol helps to prevent drying-out of syn­thetic sand mixtures. One pint of ethylene glycol per 100 lbs. of a molding sand mixture is often recommended to prevent drying-out of molding sands in both extreme hot and cold conditions, as well as to prevent freezing in cold winter months. Diethylene glycol is also a solvent. It is an anti-freeze as well, and it has a boiling point of 460 °F. (244° C.). It is a very powerful solvent and is soluble in oils. There is a growing interest in ethylene glycol as an additive for green tempered sand mixtures to prevent drying-out of the molds when they are left standing.

Ethyl silicate is used as a surface hardener for sand molds, graph­ite molds, and other molds used in the foundry. Ethyl silicate is added to surfaces of plaster and investment type molds. Silicic-acid ester paints are used as hardeners for various refractories, sodium silicate­CO2 molds and cores and other type of sand molds. The chemical composition of ethyl silicate is [ (C2H5) 4Si04]. Water hydrolyzes the liquid to alcohol and silicic acid [H4Si04], which changes to an ad­hesive form of silica. For molding, the "ester" is mixed with silica powder. It is believed that ethyl silicate has not yet reached its poten­tial as a surface hardener in the green sand foundry, as many green sand molds can obtain hardened surfaces which then offer a further market for green sand cores and molds to replace the more expensive resin core and molding methods.

Review of "Glossary of Foundry Additives" by Clyde A. Sanders, American Colloid Company

The U.S. metalcasting industry is expected to see 4.7% growth from 2017-2018 and 1.8% growth in 2018-2019. A MODERN CASTING STAFF REPORT

According to the 2018 Metalcasting Industry Fore­cast and Trends report published by the American Foundry Society (AFS), U.S. metalcasting industry sales are forecast to increase by 4.7% to reach $33 billion in 2018 after hitting an estimated $30.6 billion in 2016.  

Growth in 2019 is expected to be 1.8%. In the short term, from 2017-2020, the U.S. metalcasting industry has a forecasted annual growth rate of 2.3%. Through 2026, this report is estimating a 2.9% long-term annual growth rate for the industry. The U.S. metalcasting industry is made up of 1,952 facilities, with an industry capacity of 15.2 million tons and a forecast capacity utilization of 72% in 2018.

Top casting industries include motor vehicle manufacturing (NAICS 3361), aerospace product and parts manufacturing (NAICS 3364), transportation equipment manufacturing (NAICS 336), iron pipe, fittings, ingot molds, and etc. (NAICS 331511), engine, turbine and power transmission (NAICS 3336), pump and compressor manufacturing (NAICS 33391), and railroad rolling stock manufacturing (NAICS 3365). Those industries account for nearly 40% of all casting sales.

Based on the data secured through the "2016 Annual Census of World Casting Production" by Modern Cast­ing magazine, China shipped 47.2 million metric tons of castings in 2015 compared to 11.35 million metric tons by India and 9.4 million metric tons by the U.S. Following the U.S. and India are Japan (5.2 million metric tons), Germany (5.2), Russia (3.9), Korea (2.6), Brazil (2.1), and Italy (2.1). Mexico did not report tonnage for 2016 this year. 

In the following pages of this article are brief outlooks for the vari­ous cast metals and the industries they serve through 2026. This data is only an estimated forecast based on an economic modeling tool and should be used only as an estimate. AFS cannot be held liable for its accuracy. 


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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Premix, Foundry Additives Glossary, Ethylene Glycol

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