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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Review of AFS Glossary Foundry Terms: "Permeability" to "Vent"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 24, 2019 1:22:47 PM

A partial review of The American Foundrymen's Society's Glossary of Foundry Terms from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Permeability - The property of a mold material to allow passage of gases.
Physical properties - Properties of matter such as density, electrical and thermal conductivity, expansion, and specific heat. This term should not be used interchangeably with '' mechanical properties.''
Pig iron - Blocks of iron to a known metal chemical analysis used for melting, with suitable additions of scrap, etc., for the production of ferrous castings.
Pilot or sample casting - A casting made from a pattern produced in a produc­tion die to check the accuracy of dimensions and qual­ity of castings which will be made in quantity.
Porosity (blow-holes) - Holes in the casting due to gases trapped in the mold, reaction of molten metal with moisture in the molding sand, or imperfect fusion of chaplets with molten metal. (Surface porosity may be due to overheating of the mold or core faces, but should not be confused with sand inclusions.)
Recovery rate - Ratio of the number of saleable parts to the total number of parts manufactured, expressed as a percen­tage. Heat resistant ceramic material.
Reject rate - Ratio of the number of parts scrapped to the total number of parts manufactured, expressed as a percen­tage.
Riser - (See feeder.) Sometimes referred to as a riser. A vertical channel in the mold (part of the runner system} which forms the reservoir of molten metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrinkage as the metal solidifies. 
Runner system or gating - The set of channels in a mold through which molten metal is poured to fill the mold cavity. The system normally consists of a vertical section (downgate or sprue) to the point where it joins the mold cavity (gate) and leading from the mold cavity further vertical channels (risers or feeders).
Sand inclusions - Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand washing into the mold cavity.
Scrap - (a) Any scrap metal melted (usually with suitable additions of pig iron or ingots) to produce castings. (b) Reject castings.
Shakeout - The process of separating the solidified casting from the mold material.
Shrinkage - Contraction of metal in the mold during solidification. The term is also used to describe the casting defect, i.e., shrinkage cavity. This results from poor design, insufficient metal feed, or inadequate feeding.
Slag - A fused nonmetallic material used to protect molten metal from the air and to extract certain impurities.
Slag inclusions - Casting surface imperfections similar to sand inclu­sions, but containing impurities from the charge mate­rials, silica and clay eroded from the refractory lining, ash from the fuel during the melting process. May also originate from metal-refractory reactions occurring in the ladle during pouring of the casting.
Slurry - A flowable mixture of refractory particles suspended in a liquid. (See dip coat.)
Sodium silicate CO2 process - Molding sand is mixed with sodium silicate and the mold is gassed with carbon dioxide gas to produce a hard mold or core.
Sprue (down sprue­ down gate) - The channel, usually vertical, which the molten metal enters: so-called because it conducts metal down into the mold.
Test bar - Standard specimen bar designed to permit determina­tion of mechanical properties of the metal from which it was poured.
Test lug - A lug cast as apart of the casting and later removed for testing purposes.
Vent - A small opening or passage in a mold or core to facili­tate escape of gases when the mold is poured.

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