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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Solving Hot Sand Problems: A guide, and a Solution

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 21, 2020 11:26:50 AM

Today's foundries cannot afford to sacrifice the efficiency and profits that are the consequences of poorly controlled hot molding sand.

Excerpt from the June 2004 Foundry Management & Technology article by FM&T Staff

Metalcasting researchers say hot sand is the leading sand-related problem for today’s foundries. Most metalcasters recognize a relationship between reduced casting quality, increased process variation, and other molding inefficiencies that result from using hot molding sands. Studies show that hot sand affects virtually every operation in the production line.

System sand returned to the muller for reconditioning with a temperature of 160°F (approximately 70°C) or greater is considered to be excessively hot. Return sand ranging from 120° to 160°F (approx. 49°-70°C) is hot enough to demonstrate inconsistent properties during mixing and to be very difficult to control.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

It's Time to Play, Name... That... Green Sand Casting Defect!

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 14, 2020 8:00:00 AM

A global consortium of metalcasting companies, resin and coating suppliers, additive and sand suppliers, and researchers, aims to spread the word for CPR casting porosity reduction.

Excerpt from the June 2001 Modern Casting article by Ian Kay, Mark Nagel and Alfred T. Spada

Casting defect recognition is one of the most difficult tasks facing a metal caster. With the multitude of processes (core making, molding, melting, etc.) used to manufacture a casting, determining which is responsible for a defect requires analysis, testing and, most importantly, experience.

Of all the departments within a foundry, more defects can be attributed to molding and the sand system than any other. This is due in part to the high number of components that make up a greensand mold. From the sand, clay and water to the carbon, cereal and other additives, each component has properties that serve to reduce or control specific defects in castings. However, when the amount of any one component is out of balance with regard to the casting being poured, the potential for defects arises.

This article examines the causes of common green sand casting defects related to expansion, metal penetration, gas and weak sand while offering possible remedies. Although every casting operation is different, common themes tie many of these defects together, allowing a foundry to follow a simple step-by-step remedy progression to determine which area(s) of mold development is responsible for the defect.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Core and Mold Gas Evolution: Porosity In Castings

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 7, 2020 10:00:36 AM

A global consortium of metalcasting companies, resin and coating suppliers, additive and sand suppliers, and researchers, aims to spread the word for CPR casting porosity reduction.

Abstract from the June 2007 Foundry Management & Technology article by Charles E. Bates and Robert Burch

According to a recent survey of 121 product engineers, design engineers, metallurgists, laboratory personnel, and others associated with the design, production, and use of castings, the metalcasting industry's greatest need for improvement lies in eliminating porosity in castings. By consensus, this applies to aluminum, gray iron, and ductile iron, and to all types of steel castings. The distribution of quality issues based on this broad survey is illustrated in Figure 1. Concerns over porosity rated twice as high as any other issue in the survey.

A consortium of companies around the world is being formed to address this concern, led by AlchemCast L.L.C. The consortium is known as the Foundry Casting Porosity Reduction (CPR) Consortium, and to assure the future success of castings as structural components in engineered products, a kick-off meeting for foundries and suppliers was held in Birmingham, AL, April 12-13, 2007.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Comparing Green Sand Castings and Forgings

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 31, 2020 6:35:29 PM

When designing large structural components it’s critical to make an informed decision between castings and forgings. The following paper by Rexnord provides an in-depth examination.

Abstract from the May 2007 Gear Solutions article by Tim Zwirlein

Material selection is one of the most crucial decisions made in the design, manufacture, and application of large structural components. Material selection naturally influences the entire performance of the design, and thus it is critical that informed decisions are made during the design stage. Steel castings and steel forgings are two alternatives for large structural components. For many design engineers it is often assumed that a forging is a better product because it is formed or worked during the manufacturing process. It also assumed that castings are inferior because they may contain porosity. Nothing could be further from the truth. Each process has its advantages and disadvantages. It is just as possible to produce an inferior product whether it is a forging or a casting. This paper will present an honest evaluation of castings and forgings, so that those in the design community can make an informed choice.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Gear Solutions

Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Manufacturing Techniques: Green Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 24, 2020 2:56:03 PM

Abstract from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology thesis by Stephanie Dalquist.

Conventional manufacturing techniques have not been subject to much scrutiny by industrial ecologists to date. Many newer techniques and products draw more attention as they rise quickly from research to global scales, accentuating their environmental consequences. Despite the presence of new technologies and increased overseas production, casting is not being displaced from the US, and represents a stable component in the national economy. Data from the US government, US industry groups, and UK mass balance profiles facilitate an understanding of sand casting and comparison across manufacturing processes. The figures in the US and UK are similar in terms of diversity of metals (where the US is 76%, 13%, 8% and the UK 72%, 13%, 10% for iron, aluminum, and steel, respectively), energy per ton of metal (10.1 and 9.3 MBtu/ton in the US and UK), and overall emissions, with notable similarities in benzene and particulate emissions. One notable discrepancy is in sand use, where the US sends to waste 0.5 tons of sand per ton of cast metal, whereas the UK sends 0.27 tons.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies

Optimizing Green Sand Properties of Fluidized Sand from Aeration and Developing New Green Sand Testing Techniques

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 17, 2020 4:05:47 PM

Abstract from the Western Michigan University doctoral dissertation by Ananda Mani Paudel.

Aeration sand filling is a new molding technique in foundry. Using this technique, sand with smooth flow fills in any orientation and shape using low-pressure air. This is not possible by conventional gravity and high-pressure blow filling techniques. Aeration was introduced as an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly sand molding technique. In addition, aeration has its niche on quality of molds it could produce. Friability, one of the crucial green properties for the quality mold was significantly low in aeration in comparison to the gravity and high-pressure blow filling. The fluidization action in aeration acted upon the sand clay interfaces and created the interactions with them, and induced better surface abrasive property. In other words, aeration lowered the friability in the green sand allowing a lower compactibility levels in green sand molding, which was not possible with the conventional molding techniques. The range of 30-35% was suggested as the optimal working range of compactibility for aeration molding technique for selected sand and clay composition.

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Case Studies in Green Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Mar 3, 2020 5:11:22 PM

Article excerpt from the September/October 2018 issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.

The common practice allows designers the freedom to achieve many different parts via an evolving method of production.

The green sand casting process is the most widely-used process for casting ferrous and nonferrous metals. The process has evolved from a manually intensive operation to a highly mechanized and fully automated process.

In terms of weight, complexity and alloy composition, a wide range of castings can be produced via green sand casting. In terms of shape, the process can be used to cast parts as simple as ingots and as complex as engine blocks. It is commonly used for ferrous alloys; however, it can be used for almost any alloy, including those of aluminum, copper, magnesium and nickel.

One of the major advantages of green sand casting is its low cost, especially when mass-producing castings on highly automated molding and coremaking equipment. Another major advantage of green sand is its versatility with respect to production. The process can be economically applied to small and large production runs. In addition, the production rate can be increased by making multiple mold cavities in a single mold.

 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Metal Casting Design & Purchasing Magazine

Life Cycle Assessment in Foundry Sand Reclamation – Comparison of Secondary Reclamation Processes

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 25, 2020 6:58:51 PM

Excerpt from Samuel Keith Ghormley's University of Nebraska Graduate Thesis from December 2017.

Foundries represent a significant part of the base of the world’s economy and as a sector are one of the largest consumers of energy and producers of solid waste in the United States. Sand casting foundries use approximately 5-10% of their total energy on sand handling processes. By adding a secondary sand reclamation process, foundries can expect to become more energy efficient as well as reducing solid waste from the foundry. To measure the broader environmental impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used. The goal of the current research was to examine a medium-sized foundry in the United States that sources its sand from a long distance away by using LCA techniques.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Foundry Supplies

Intro to Green Sand Casting Foundries

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 18, 2020 8:00:00 AM

Article excerpt from the TheMetalCasting.com.

Foundry sand is used for making castings, and is primarily generated by the automotive industry and its part suppliers. It consists of clean silica sand, which is of high quality; or lake sand, which is bonded to make molds for ferrous (iron and steel) and non-ferrous (copper, aluminum, brass) metal castings. The following types of sands are used for making molds in the foundry industry: Green Sand, Resin Coated Sand, Molasses, Cold Box Sand, Hot Box Sand, and CO2 Sand.

These types of sand can be obtained directly from the foundries located in the Midwest states such as Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, TheMetalCasting.com

Metalworking and Machining Lubricants and Fluids

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Nov 23, 2018 5:26:40 PM

The Hill and Griffith Company is a member of the Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association.

Since 1948, the Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association (ILMA) has been the voice of member companies that produce more than a quarter of the nation's automotive lubricants and three-quarters of its metalworking fluids for customers who use their products to improve performance and increase efficiency.

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Tags: Green Sand Foundry Supplies, metalworking fluids, industrial greases, metalworking lubricants, industrial lubricants, industrial cleaners

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