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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

How 3D Printing is Changing Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 19, 2021 9:33:14 AM

3D printing has eliminated much of the tedium of the 3,000-year-old sand casting process

Excerpt from the September 2020 The Additive Report article by Kip Hanson.

Humans began pouring the first sand castings approximately three millennia ago. And until recently, that technology has remained virtually unchanged:

• A replica, or "pattern," of the desired object is placed in an open-ended, steel molding box.

• A special type of sand is poured around the pattern, which is pounded firmly into place and then removed.

• A sprue is cut to allow molten metal to flow into the mold, along with a gate that joins the sprue to the mold cavity.

• A core is used to replicate parts having internal features.

• Molten metal is poured into the mold; when the metal cools, the completed part is removed.

That's sand casting in a nutshell, although journeyman pattern maker Dave Rittmeyer will tell you there's far more to it than that. Rittmeyer, the customer care and additive manufacturing manager at Hoosier Pattern Inc., Decatur, Ind., also will tell you the industry has undergone a dramatic shift over the past decade or so, thanks in part to AM.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, The Additive Report

Casting Goes Digital with Sand 3D Printing, Nondestructive Testing

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 12, 2021 5:04:14 PM

Tooling & Equipment International (TEI) used to make tooling for castings. Now, it casts prototype parts in a digital workflow using 3D printed sand molds in combination with simulation software, CT scanning and X-ray technology.

Excerpt from the January 2019 Additive Manufacturing article by Stephanie Hendrixson.

"In the early days, before numerically controlled machines, casting tools were made by highly skilled pattern makers carving mahogany into patterns and packing sand around them," says Oliver Johnson, president of Tooling & Equipment International (TEI). "You'd be talking six or nine months to make all the tooling for a part that we could do today with a 3D printed mold in two days."

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Additive Manufacturing Magazine

Novel Sprue Designs in Metal Casting Via 3D Sand-Printing

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 5, 2021 5:07:26 PM

Excerpt from the January 2019 Additive Manufacturing article by Santosh Reddy Sama, Tony Badamo, Paul Lynch, and Guha Manogharan.

The market size of the metal casting industry was 20.23 billion USD in 2017 and is expected to grow annually at a rate of 8.87% to reach 39.94 billion USD by 2025. Engineered castings constitute about 90% of total manufactured goods and capital equipment. In United States, over 2000 metal casting facilities employ more than 200,000 people across the country. Despite having a casting market share of 80%, sand casting foundries across the globe suffer from long lead times, expensive tooling and limited flexibility. It is well known that the pattern making step in sand casting is the bottleneck and often, the most expensive component in low volume production runs. The need to remove the pattern from compacted sand mold to create casting cavity significantly restricts the geometries in traditional sand castings. The increased complexity of metal parts for industrial and mission critical applications demands new technologies. Recent advancements in 3D Sand-Printing (3DSP) which is a form of Additive Manufacturing (AM) bridges this technological gap through direct printing of sand molds in a layer-by-layer process.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products

Blow-hole Defect Analysis of Cylinder Block-A Case Study

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 22, 2020 10:18:43 PM

Excerpt from the January 2017 article in International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology by M.R. Latte and P.D. Chougule. 

Abstract

In this research paper, the blow-hole defect analysis of MH1-VST 4-cylinder block fitted on tractors is presented as a case study. An MHI-VST 4-cylinder block is the central component of a tractor or any vehicle. It plays an important role in lubrication, temperature control and stability of the engine. It must be of the highest quality so there is no room for shortcuts. In this case study, parts pre- and post-analysis is done by using quality control (QC) tools such as Pareto charts and cause/effect diagrams. A DMAIC approach is followed and proper actions are taken to reduce the defect and rejection rate at the factory end. The work is done under two phases:

Phase 1: identifying drastic effects of blow holes in production; 
Phase 2: sorting out the issues by using various QC tools and expert opinion.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Different Types of Casting Processes Used in Manufacturing

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 15, 2020 5:05:39 PM

This article focuses the application of green sand in large scale infrastructure projects.

Excerpt from the Thomas Register article defining the different casting processes. 

Casting manufacturing is a process in which liquefied material, such as molten metal, is poured into the cavity of a specially designed mold and allowed to harden. After solidification, the workpiece is removed from the mold to undergo various finishing treatments or for use as a final product. Casting methods are typically used to create intricate solid and hollow shapes, and cast products are found in a wide range of applications, including automotive components, aerospace parts, etc.

 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

User Guidelines for Foundry Sand in Green Infrastructure Construction

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 8, 2020 4:49:01 PM

This article focuses the application of green sand in large scale infrastructure projects.

Excerpt from the December 2011 principle investigation by Craig H. Benson and Sabrina Bradshaw from University of Wisconsin-Madison's Recycled Materials Resource Center. 

Introduction

Foundry sand is high-quality uniform silica sand used to make molds and cores for ferrous and nonferrous metal castings. The metal casting industry annually uses an estimated 100 million tons of foundry sand for production. Over time, foundry sands physically degrade until they are no longer suitable for molds. Consequently, 9 to 10 million tons of sand are discarded each year. However, the discarded foundry sands have remarkably consistent composition and are typically considered a higher quality material than typical bank run or natural sands used in construction. Currently, an estimated 28% of discarded sand is reused in primarily construction related applications, while the remaining sand is discarded in landfills (American Foundry Society 2007). Recycling of foundry sand can:

  • save energy
  • reduce the need to mine virgin materials
  • may reduce costs for both producers and end users
Use of foundry sand as a fine aggregate in construction applications offers project managers the ability to enhance green sustainable construction by reducing their carbon footprint, while also qualifying for LEED credits. The USEPA recently estimated that at the current recycling level 20,000 tons of CO 2 emissions are prevented while 200 billion BTUs of energy are saved. Support for increased reuse of foundry sand has brought together the USEPA, the Federal Highway Administration, the US Department of Agriculture, the Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC), state environmental agencies, the foundry industry and end users to develop the tools and resources needed to increase foundry sand recycling to 50% by 2015.

 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Nobake Basics (Including Mold Coatings)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 2, 2020 3:44:38 PM

This article focuses on the nobake process and when it would be appropriate for use.

An MCDP Staff Report
Click here to see this story as it appears in the January/February 2018 edition of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

Dozens of chemically bonded sand molding methods exist, but they can be divided into three main categories: coldbox, heat-activated and nobake. The basic principle is that a binder and catalyst are mixed with the sand to help form the mold into a "brick-like" product when cured. The differences in the process focus on the sand resin binder and catalyst used and how the mold or core is cured.

Coldbox—with this method, sand is coated with one of several binders, such as liquid sodium silicate or phenolic urethane, and catalyzed by a gas (such as carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide) passing through the sand. This causes the resin binder to harden (cure) and lock the sand grains in place to maintain a solid mold wall.

Heat-Activated/Shell (also called hotbox and warmbox)—heat is used as the curing means in shell molding. Plastic resin-coated sand is compacted around a pattern and allowed to rest until a "shell" forms. The mold then is heated to temperatures higher than 500F (260C) to cure the mold.    

Nobake (also called airset, dry sand and precision sand)—like coldbox, several binders are optional. However, a liquid catalyst is used. The sand is processed in a continuous mixer and then formed around the pattern until it is fully cured.

Mold coatings are applied to more than 75% of noble molds. The coatings help prevent defects and improve surface finish.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Review of American Foundry Society's "Core Processes"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 5, 2019 3:45:49 PM

An editorial review of AFS's "Core Processes" Chapter from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Hill and Griffith specializes in compounds and coatings for Green Sand Foundry Process patterns and cores. This post highlights a few parts of the "Casting Buyer's Guide" chapter two on "Core Processes." With a better understanding of cores, you will understand our diverse product selection.
 
"One of the reasons castings are so widely used in all types of applications is due to the great design flexibility to form the internal shape of a casting which is inherent in a variety of processes available to produce a core.
 
The core, which is usually a pre-formed sand aggregate (metal for die casting), is inserted into the mold to shape the interior of a casting or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern. The core is located and held in the mold by core pockets, formed by the pattern. In areas where the core may be thin in cross-section or require additional support to maintain metal wall thickness, chaplets are used.
 

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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, AFS Casting Buyers Guide

Review of AFS Glossary Foundry Terms: "Permeability" to "Vent"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 24, 2019 1:22:47 PM

A partial review of The American Foundrymen's Society's Glossary of Foundry Terms from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Permeability - The property of a mold material to allow passage of gases.
 
Physical properties - Properties of matter such as density, electrical and thermal conductivity, expansion, and specific heat. This term should not be used interchangeably with '' mechanical properties.''
 
Pig iron - Blocks of iron to a known metal chemical analysis used for melting, with suitable additions of scrap, etc., for the production of ferrous castings.
 
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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Glossary Foundry Terms

Review of Reliance Foundry's, "How to make green sand for metal casting foundry" article

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 15, 2019 5:23:16 PM

This is a great basic description of the "Green Sand" foundry method.

"Molding sand is at the heart of the sand casting process. It must hold a shape well and capture the fine details of a casting, yet be permeable enough to allow gases to escape. Under the strain of having the molding pattern removed from it, or while it is filled, it cannot crumble or sink on itself. When it is turned upside down it must not lose its form: the parts of a mold have to stay true while clamped together.

In most cases, “green” sand is enough to evidence these properties. Green sand is not called that because of its color—these materials can be a wide range of colors depending on composition and use. Instead, it gets its name because it is damp, like green wood.
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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting

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