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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

A 101 Guide to Green Sand Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 4, 2019 9:52:51 AM

Originally published by Thomas Insights.

For millennia, sand casting has offered an indispensable way to create large volumes of similar products around the world. Manufacturing and engineering companies value sand casting for its ability to produce highly complex casts that work with many different metal alloys for large and small projects; more than 60% of all metal castings rely on sand casting process technologies.

Sand casting employs non-reusable sand molds to create metal castings. Sand casting produces parts ranging from very small (less than a pound) to very large and complex parts. Because sand casting can create products across a wide range of shapes, sizes, and materials, sand-casted products are:

  • Easily recyclable
  • Inexpensive
  • Able to withstand high temperatures
  • Suitable for low- and high-volume production
  • Able to work with almost any metal alloy 

Photo credit: Mr.1/Shutterstock.com

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Thomas Insights

Article Excerpt: "What's the Difference Between Investment Casting and Sand Casting?"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 27, 2019 8:58:32 AM

Though they have been refined through the ages, significant differences exist between the two methods used to make metal parts.

Originally published in the April 2016 issue of Machine Design by Brad Done, Reliance Foundry Co.

Sand casting and investment casting are methods of creating metal parts by pouring molten metal into three-dimensional molds. Although methods are thousands of years old, both have been refined over the years to minimize the amount of metal used and reduce any extensive machining and finishing required. But significant differences exist between these two methods of making metal parts. First let’s take a look at the basics behind each.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Machine Design Magazine

Article Excerpt: "Does Water Quality Affect Green Sand Properties"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 20, 2019 11:13:53 AM

Originally published in the June 2018 issue of Modern Casting.

by Bo Wallace, Sairam Ravi, Jerry Thiel

Water-soluble salts or electrolytes are just some of the mineral contaminants found in everyday tap water used by foundries across the U.S for their green sand systems. Bentonite is the main bonding compound of green sand systems, and for it to have quality bonding, it first must be activated with the use of an agent. A good activating agent must fulfill three requirements:  

  1. Be distinctly soluble in water, having a solubility of at least 1 g/100 g of water.
  2. Be composed of anions, which react with cations (Na+) to give insoluble compounds.
  3. Supply small, univalent cations for ion exchange.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Article Excerpt: "Dynamic Testing of Green Sand"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 13, 2019 3:24:51 PM

Can Metalcasters Better Monitor Sand Properties by Adopting Additional Testing Methods?

Originally published in the September 2015 issue of Modern Casting.

by Sam Ramrattan, Mo Khoshgoftar and Hiroyasu Makino

Sand property testing tells a metalcasting facility how well it is controlling its green sand system. Many of these current tests do not provide as timely results as desired, but certain laboratory tests are essential in properly controlling processes. Due to the nature of the variables that are being monitored, some test data, such as loss on ignition (LOI) values, tend to change slowly, while other test results, such as green compression strength and compactability, may fluctuate more abruptly. Current sand testing provides insight into sand quality, but the metalcasting industry as a whole would benefit from methods to better and more quickly quantify the effectiveness of sand-clay bond strength in green sand molds.

The green sand samples subtly change color after thermal erosion tests (TET) for various temperatures.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Article Excerpt: "The Significance of Total Carbon in Green Sand Systems"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Aug 6, 2019 11:05:35 AM

Originally published in the May 2017 issue of Foundry Management & Technology.

by Alexander Brown

Controlling raw materials is critical to the success of iron casting production from green sand systems. The base silica sand is often overlooked, with the main focus on bentonite additions. Carbonaceous additives can be considered a “necessary evil” to ensure a good surface finish and reduction in sand-related surface defects. Other additives are used when systems get out of balance, and these will further complicate the complexity of green sand systems.

For castings requiring cores, this becomes a bigger issue, as many different resin systems are employed for core production, and these must be taken into consideration when controlling both the carbonaceous levels and the overall grading of the sand system. The twin effects on additional carbon and loss-on-ignition and overall sand grading need careful understanding and control.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Foundry Management & Technology magazine

Article Excerpt: "Green Sand Testing Aptitude"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 30, 2019 3:32:42 PM

Originally published in the July 2014 issue of Modern Casting.

The dilution of core sand and other additives into greensand is a popular topic of discussion in the metalcasting industry. In the 1960s and 1970s, industry experts debated whether core sand was a contamination in greensand. But core sand or other additives (new sand) are not considered contaminations because these materials are added into the greensand by design, not by accident. Today’s sand casting facilities treat core sand and new sand as an additive that is monitored, and it is adjusted to compensate for variations in the process.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Is It Easy Being Green?

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 23, 2019 8:00:00 AM

Excerpt from the May/June 2015 issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.

Foundry sand, which is used by 60% of metalcasters to make molds and cores in a variety of metalcasting processes, represents a significant industrial byproduct. Unlike metal, which has been recycled for centuries, foundry sand has become a target of reclamation and recycling efforts in the last 20-30 years. Due to increasing regulatory control and disposal costs, metalcasters have reduced the amount of sand headed to landfills.


Green sand can be reclaimed and reused an average of eight times for molds.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

Article Review: "Nine Green Sand Facts to Know"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 16, 2019 11:17:19 AM

Originally published in the Jan/Feb 2019 issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.

The green sand casting process is the most widely-used process for casting ferrous and nonferrous metals. The process has evolved from a manually intensive operation to a highly mechanized and fully automated process that can produce more than 300 molds per hour.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

Article Review: "Avoiding (Green Sand Foundry) Coating Related Defects" - Part 2

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 9, 2019 12:30:08 PM

Refractory coatings exist to improve casting quality, but when not properly applied, they can cause unwanted characteristics in the final casting.

By Jay Morrison, Carpenter Brothers (Mequon, Wisconsin)

Applying a refractory coating to molds and cores can be a useful step to improve surface finish, control the heat transfer characteristics and thus the microstructure in the casting, improve core venting and prevent certain defects in the casting. As with any process step, proper techniques in applying the coating are paramount in achieving the desired effects and avoiding the cause of new quality issues. Metalcasters can apply coatings to their sand molds in four main ways, all with varying advantages and disadvantages.

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Tags: American Foundry Society, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Metal Casting Systems - Choosing Between Nobake and Green Sand

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jul 2, 2019 5:35:28 PM

Navigate the differences in capabilities and cost factors between nobake and green sand metal casting molding processes to ease your sourcing decision.

Opting for a sand casting process over permanent mold, diecasting, or investment casting is step one in sourcing a casting. But sand casting encompasses several methods, each of which carries its own advantages and disadvantages. The two most common processes used are green sand and nobake molding, and sourcing between the two is not always cut and dry.

Forty-two percent of North American metalcasters employ the green sand molding process.  Its popularity stems from its affordability, ability to be used for most metals and flexibility for low to high volume production.

Green sand molding does not hold the tightest tolerances or achieve the finest surface finish of all the casting processes; however, in general, it meets most of the qualifications desired to produce a high quality casting with a good finish.

Nobake sand casting, which is utilized by 40% of North American metalcasters, also is known for its versatility. Virtually all metals can be cast via nobake molding, a wide range of sizes can be produced, and the rigid mold walls provide good dimensional tolerances and control.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Modern Casting Magazine, Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

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