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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Blow-hole Defect Analysis of Cylinder Block-A Case Study

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 22, 2020 10:18:43 PM

Excerpt from the January 2017 article in International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology by M.R. Latte and P.D. Chougule. 

Abstract

In this research paper, the blow-hole defect analysis of MH1-VST 4-cylinder block fitted on tractors is presented as a case study. An MHI-VST 4-cylinder block is the central component of a tractor or any vehicle. It plays an important role in lubrication, temperature control and stability of the engine. It must be of the highest quality so there is no room for shortcuts. In this case study, parts pre- and post-analysis is done by using quality control (QC) tools such as Pareto charts and cause/effect diagrams. A DMAIC approach is followed and proper actions are taken to reduce the defect and rejection rate at the factory end. The work is done under two phases:

Phase 1: identifying drastic effects of blow holes in production; 
Phase 2: sorting out the issues by using various QC tools and expert opinion.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Different Types of Casting Processes Used in Manufacturing

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 15, 2020 5:05:39 PM

This article focuses the application of green sand in large scale infrastructure projects.

Excerpt from the Thomas Register article defining the different casting processes. 

Casting manufacturing is a process in which liquefied material, such as molten metal, is poured into the cavity of a specially designed mold and allowed to harden. After solidification, the workpiece is removed from the mold to undergo various finishing treatments or for use as a final product. Casting methods are typically used to create intricate solid and hollow shapes, and cast products are found in a wide range of applications, including automotive components, aerospace parts, etc.

 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

User Guidelines for Foundry Sand in Green Infrastructure Construction

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 8, 2020 4:49:01 PM

This article focuses the application of green sand in large scale infrastructure projects.

Excerpt from the December 2011 principle investigation by Craig H. Benson and Sabrina Bradshaw from University of Wisconsin-Madison's Recycled Materials Resource Center. 

Introduction

Foundry sand is high-quality uniform silica sand used to make molds and cores for ferrous and nonferrous metal castings. The metal casting industry annually uses an estimated 100 million tons of foundry sand for production. Over time, foundry sands physically degrade until they are no longer suitable for molds. Consequently, 9 to 10 million tons of sand are discarded each year. However, the discarded foundry sands have remarkably consistent composition and are typically considered a higher quality material than typical bank run or natural sands used in construction. Currently, an estimated 28% of discarded sand is reused in primarily construction related applications, while the remaining sand is discarded in landfills (American Foundry Society 2007). Recycling of foundry sand can:

  • save energy
  • reduce the need to mine virgin materials
  • may reduce costs for both producers and end users
Use of foundry sand as a fine aggregate in construction applications offers project managers the ability to enhance green sustainable construction by reducing their carbon footprint, while also qualifying for LEED credits. The USEPA recently estimated that at the current recycling level 20,000 tons of CO 2 emissions are prevented while 200 billion BTUs of energy are saved. Support for increased reuse of foundry sand has brought together the USEPA, the Federal Highway Administration, the US Department of Agriculture, the Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC), state environmental agencies, the foundry industry and end users to develop the tools and resources needed to increase foundry sand recycling to 50% by 2015.

 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Nobake Basics (Including Mold Coatings)

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 2, 2020 3:44:38 PM

This article focuses on the nobake process and when it would be appropriate for use.

An MCDP Staff Report
Click here to see this story as it appears in the January/February 2018 edition of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing

Dozens of chemically bonded sand molding methods exist, but they can be divided into three main categories: coldbox, heat-activated and nobake. The basic principle is that a binder and catalyst are mixed with the sand to help form the mold into a "brick-like" product when cured. The differences in the process focus on the sand resin binder and catalyst used and how the mold or core is cured.

Coldbox—with this method, sand is coated with one of several binders, such as liquid sodium silicate or phenolic urethane, and catalyzed by a gas (such as carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide) passing through the sand. This causes the resin binder to harden (cure) and lock the sand grains in place to maintain a solid mold wall.

Heat-Activated/Shell (also called hotbox and warmbox)—heat is used as the curing means in shell molding. Plastic resin-coated sand is compacted around a pattern and allowed to rest until a "shell" forms. The mold then is heated to temperatures higher than 500F (260C) to cure the mold.    

Nobake (also called airset, dry sand and precision sand)—like coldbox, several binders are optional. However, a liquid catalyst is used. The sand is processed in a continuous mixer and then formed around the pattern until it is fully cured.

Mold coatings are applied to more than 75% of noble molds. The coatings help prevent defects and improve surface finish.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core And Mold Coatings, mold coatings

Review of American Foundry Society's "Core Processes"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 5, 2019 3:45:49 PM

An editorial review of AFS's "Core Processes" Chapter from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Hill and Griffith specializes in compounds and coatings for Green Sand Foundry Process patterns and cores. This post highlights a few parts of the "Casting Buyer's Guide" chapter two on "Core Processes." With a better understanding of cores, you will understand our diverse product selection.
 
"One of the reasons castings are so widely used in all types of applications is due to the great design flexibility to form the internal shape of a casting which is inherent in a variety of processes available to produce a core.
 
The core, which is usually a pre-formed sand aggregate (metal for die casting), is inserted into the mold to shape the interior of a casting or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern. The core is located and held in the mold by core pockets, formed by the pattern. In areas where the core may be thin in cross-section or require additional support to maintain metal wall thickness, chaplets are used.
 

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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, AFS Casting Buyers Guide

Review of AFS Glossary Foundry Terms: "Permeability" to "Vent"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 24, 2019 1:22:47 PM

A partial review of The American Foundrymen's Society's Glossary of Foundry Terms from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Permeability - The property of a mold material to allow passage of gases.
 
Physical properties - Properties of matter such as density, electrical and thermal conductivity, expansion, and specific heat. This term should not be used interchangeably with '' mechanical properties.''
 
Pig iron - Blocks of iron to a known metal chemical analysis used for melting, with suitable additions of scrap, etc., for the production of ferrous castings.
 
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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Glossary Foundry Terms

Review of Reliance Foundry's, "How to make green sand for metal casting foundry" article

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 15, 2019 5:23:16 PM

This is a great basic description of the "Green Sand" foundry method.

"Molding sand is at the heart of the sand casting process. It must hold a shape well and capture the fine details of a casting, yet be permeable enough to allow gases to escape. Under the strain of having the molding pattern removed from it, or while it is filled, it cannot crumble or sink on itself. When it is turned upside down it must not lose its form: the parts of a mold have to stay true while clamped together.

In most cases, “green” sand is enough to evidence these properties. Green sand is not called that because of its color—these materials can be a wide range of colors depending on composition and use. Instead, it gets its name because it is damp, like green wood.
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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting

Review of AFS Glossary Foundry Terms: "Foundry returns" to "Patternmaker's shrinkage"

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 8, 2019 5:25:13 PM

A review of The American Foundrymen's Society's Glossary of Foundry Terms from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

Foundry returns - Metal in the form of gates, sprues, runners, risers, and scrapped castings of known composition returned to the furnace for remelting.
 
Gas porosity - A condition existing in a casting caused by the trap­ping of gas in the molten metal, or by mold gases evolved during the pouring of the casting.
 
Gate (ingate) - The portion of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold cavity. Other gates: bottom -any gating system by which metal enters the mold cavity at the bottom.
 
Green sand - Moist clay bonded molding sand.
 
Heat - A single furnace charge of metal to be used for pouring directly into mold cavities; a heat may be all or part of a master heat.
 
Heat treatment - A combination of heating and cooling operations timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state in a manner which will produce desired properties.
 
Hotbox process - A furan resin-based process which uses heated metal coreboxes to produce cores.
 
Hot tear - Irregularly shaped fracture in a casting resulting from stresses set up by steep thermal gradients within the casting during solidification and too much rigidity of the core or mold material.
 
Inclusions - Particles of slag, refractory materials, sand or deoxida­tion products trapped in the casting during solidifica­tion.
 
Investment casting process - A pattern casting process in which a wax or thermop­lastic pattern is used. The pattern is invested (sur­rounded) by a refractory slurry. After the mold is dry, the pattern is melted or burned out of the mold cavity, and molten metal is poured into the resulting cavity.
 
 
Ladle - A container for molten metal used to transfer metal from the furnace to the mold.
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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Glossary Foundry Terms

Green Sand Foundry Technology Video

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 2, 2019 9:40:05 AM

Thanks to Belloi & Romaqnoli for this great animation of the green sand foundry process.

Green Sand Preparation, Tight Flask Molding, Rotary Sand and Casting Cooling Shakeout Technology 

"A modern foundry sand preparation system must meet two fundamental requirements, it must produce quality sand and it must continue to deliver this quality over time. Belloi & Romagnoli systems guarantee the supply of quality sand with the right compatibility and green strength with a temperature level below 45 degrees, which is permeable and constant over time. Now, let's see how.

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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting

Review of AFS Glossary Foundry Terms: AQL to Flask

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Dec 27, 2018 6:02:16 PM

A review of The American Foundrymen's Society's Glossary of Foundry Terms from the "Casting Buyer's Guide"

AQL - Acceptable Quality Level. A quality level established on a prearranged system of inspection using samples selected at random.

As-cast condition - Casting without subsequent heat treatment.

Backing sand - The bulk of the sand in the flask. The sand compacted on top of the facing sand which covers the pattern.

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Tags: Metal Casting, Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Metal Casting Supplies, Foundry Supplies, Green Sand Metal Casting, Green Sand System, Green Sand Metalcasting, Glossary Foundry Terms

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