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Green Sand Metalcasting Foundry News

Changes to New Sand Additions at Cadillac Casting

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 20, 2020 7:29:57 PM

Excerpt from the October 2020 Modern Casting Article by Travis Hepfner.

An AFS Green Sand Division revealed foundries are handling new sand additions differently from what has historically been standard. Here, one foundry shows why and how it eliminated new sand additions altogether.

A recent survey by the AFS Green Sand Division asking foundries about their new sand addition practices revealed what was once considered a common practice was not so definitive for every plant. While 300 lbs. of new sand per 1 ton of iron poured has been an industry baseline, discussions with many sand foundries showed that for some, the practice of adding new sand had been eschewed for using their core sand as “new” molding sand.

In the survey of 47 sand foundries, 10 were not adding new sand, other than the core sand input. One of those foundries was AFS Corporate Member Cadillac Casting. While presenting at the virtual 2020 Sand Casting and Additive Manufacturing Conference last month, Travis Hepfner, quality engineer at Cadillac Casting, shared the foundry’s path to eliminating new sand additions.
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Modern Casting Magazine

Sustainability Gets the Green Light

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Sep 1, 2020 4:25:36 PM

The metalcasting industry sees itself as a leader in recycling. But when it comes to engaging local government, communities and customers, metalcasters can improve their message of waste reduction and beneficial use. 

Excerpt from the article in the June 2014 issue of Modern Casting by Nicholas Leider.

Many in the metalcasting industry refer to themselves as "the world's original recycler." The saying is perfect for a bumper sticker, but metalcasters have a problem when it comes to a deeper discussion of environmentally sustainable practices. The industry is conscious of reducing wastes, reducing costs and fulfilling a vital role in industrial sustainability, but such efforts often fall on deaf ears of local communities, government officials and customers.

Because a reduction in waste or decrease in consumption is financially beneficial does not make it any less environmentally friendly. Metalcasters need to be aware that successfully implementing sustainability programs can make economic sense and also improve relations with their neighbors. Fortunately, metalcasting has a number of inherent positives in regards to sustainability, which is a great way to begin a conversation on the topic of going green.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Coatings, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Core Binders, Green Sand Additive Products, Modern Casting Magazine

Castings of the Year 2020 Part 3

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 30, 2020 8:19:23 PM

Excerpt from the May 2020 Issue of Modern Casting

This year’s annual AFS Casting Competition continues with 2 more casting category winners:

  • Best Casting Conversion for Waupaca Foundry Inc.'s rear suspension trailing arm
  • Outstanding Achievement from O'Fallon Casting for their aluminum pump housing
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Modern Casting Magazine

Green Sand Emissions and the Concentration of Carbonaceous Additives

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 9, 2020 1:22:54 PM

Excerpt from December 2019 Modern Casting article by Liam Miller, Ray Vakili, Jason St. Onge, and Zhen Wang.

A replacement of seacoal with causticized lignite has the potential to reduce foundry emissions.

The benefits of adding finely divided bituminous coal, commonly known as seacoal, or other carbon rich additives to clay-bonded molding sands have been well established by the foundry industry to generate air emissions. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are generated and released during the metalcasting process because of the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous additives in the molding sand.

In general, organic substances produce volatile gases and deposit a solid residue enriched in carbon after pyrolysis. This pyrolysis of carbon containing materials has generally been accepted as serving several essential functions in green sand castings as summarized in publications as far back as 1980. The generation of volatile gases from the carbonaceous material promotes a reducing environment in the mold cavity helping to inhibit the oxidation of the liquid metal. The pressure generated by the volatile gases, in addition to the carbon rich residue deposited during pyrolysis, helps resist metal penetration and promote good casting finish while aiding in the peel of the solidified casting from the sand mold. The gases that are evolved from the carbonaceous material exposed to high temperatures in the sand mold contain VOCs and HAPs and have been shown to be major contributors to overall foundry air emissions.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Additive Products, Modern Casting Magazine

Castings of the Year 2020 Part 2

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jun 2, 2020 5:26:01 PM

Excerpt from the May 2020 Issue of Modern Casting

This year’s annual AFS Casting Competition continues with 2 of the casting category winners: Achievement by a Small Foundry and Outstanding Achievement. Congratulations go to LA Aluminum Casting Co. for their lift wrench and to Dotson Iron Casting for their trip arm. 

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Modern Casting Magazine

Castings of the Year 2020

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on May 26, 2020 8:48:48 AM

Excerpt from the May 2020 Issue of Modern Casting

This year’s annual AFS Casting Competition is a rare one. Two submitted castings tied for the top honor, and for very different reasons. The opener main body casting by Lethbridge Iron Works Co. (Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada) showcases the opportunities in converting from fabrication to casting, while the V6 engine block by BRP-US (Spruce Pine, North Carolina) exemplifies the ultra-complexity achievable with the lost foam casting process. Eight additional castings also have been honored for their exemplary work in achieving customer benefits and advancing the metalcasting industry.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Modern Casting Magazine

It's Time to Play, Name... That... Green Sand Casting Defect!

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Apr 14, 2020 8:00:00 AM

A global consortium of metalcasting companies, resin and coating suppliers, additive and sand suppliers, and researchers, aims to spread the word for CPR casting porosity reduction.

Excerpt from the June 2001 Modern Casting article by Ian Kay, Mark Nagel and Alfred T. Spada

Casting defect recognition is one of the most difficult tasks facing a metal caster. With the multitude of processes (core making, molding, melting, etc.) used to manufacture a casting, determining which is responsible for a defect requires analysis, testing and, most importantly, experience.

Of all the departments within a foundry, more defects can be attributed to molding and the sand system than any other. This is due in part to the high number of components that make up a greensand mold. From the sand, clay and water to the carbon, cereal and other additives, each component has properties that serve to reduce or control specific defects in castings. However, when the amount of any one component is out of balance with regard to the casting being poured, the potential for defects arises.

This article examines the causes of common green sand casting defects related to expansion, metal penetration, gas and weak sand while offering possible remedies. Although every casting operation is different, common themes tie many of these defects together, allowing a foundry to follow a simple step-by-step remedy progression to determine which area(s) of mold development is responsible for the defect.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Green Sand Metalcasting, Green Sand Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Cast in Place: Integrating Non-Cast Components into Castings

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Feb 11, 2020 8:00:00 AM

Article excerpt from the August 2017 issue of Modern Casting by Geoffrey D. Korff and Travis B. Stewart.

Steam turbines are built using a variety of castings ranging from standard class 25 gray iron to 400 series stainless steels. A typical single-stage turbine can contain up to 21 castings of different variations for the base design, while a typical multi-stage turbine can contain 30 castings or more. This does not include any castings that would be used for add-on equipment, such as trip and throttle valves and aftermarket governors or for other equipment on the equipment train.

The casting material is determined based on the temperature, pressure, environment, and steam conditions for the turbine application. In many cases, casting materials are interchangeable depending on these factors. For example, iron castings may be used in some applications for their thermal properties and ductility/dampening, while stainless steels may be used in other applications where it is needed for corrosion resistance. Material selection is important not only for the operation of the unit, but also for servicing the unit. Depending on the operating temperatures, there may be requirements for J-Factor calculations to avoid embrittlement in the time vs. temperature designs. Charpy impact testing may be required for low temperature service. For turbines, this is mostly environment-based and not dependent on operating temperatures.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Predicting, Preventing Core Gas Defects in Steel Castings

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Jan 28, 2020 8:00:00 AM

Modeling and analyzing core gas evolution and metal solidification behavior can aid in the prediction and prevention of porosity caused by core gas.

Article excerpt from the Modern Casting September 2014 issue by L. Xue, M. Carter, A. Catalina, Z. Lin, C. Qiu and C. Li.

Porosity is a common but serious casting defect. One type of porosity is a result of core gas that has evolved and become trapped in the casting during solidification. Detailed information is needed to reduce or eliminate core gas-related defects regarding the core gas generation, flow and venting in the core, and the metal flow and solidification behavior in the mold. In a recent study, numerical simulations were conducted based on a prototype design for a steel casting for Caterpillar. Core gas and porosity defects calculated in the simulations were analyzed and compared with the real casting results.

The gases dissolved during solidification can be caused by hydrogen or nitrogen in the initial liquid or core gas decomposed from the sand core and vented to the liquid, and they play a major role in porosity formation in castings. For all the analytical models developed to predict porosity defects in castings, most are based on tracking the evolution of dissolved gases in the initial liquid. Due to the complicated physics involved, modeling the core gas evolution in castings is difficult. However, without the consideration of core gas, predictions of porosity defects are insufficient.

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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

Defect Detective: Common Green Sand Flaws

Posted by Hill and Griffith Company on Oct 22, 2019 3:47:48 PM

Green sand quality control, including good critical visual inspection, helps avoid scrapped castings.

Excerpt from the July 2018 issue of Modern Casting by the AFS Institute

Quality control begins with prevention. Metalcasters can control five areas of green sand mold making in order to prevent mold defects:

  • The selection of type of sand and clay and the amount of moisture needed to make the mold. 
  • Consistent mulling, using the right sequence of raw materials, and selecting the right temperature of the sand.
  • The cleanliness and condition of horizontal and vertical patterns, as well as core placement.
  • Selection of scrap metal and determining what can be reused and what must be discarded.
  • Testing for quality ensures the part meets the requirement of the buyer. While casting can be tested many ways, one of the major casting quality tests used after the casting is made is visual inspection.


Nine common types of green sand casting defects can be visually identified:

  • cracks
  • holes
  • rough surfaces
  • tear-up/drop
  • friable edges
  • excess parting spray
  • missing components
  • loose sand
  • sand contamination
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Tags: Green Sand Casting Products, Green Sand Foundry Supply, Foundry Supply, Green Sand Release Agents, Foundry Supplies, Modern Casting Magazine

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